Flashcards in Chapter Seven - Energy Deck (41):
How many kilojoules are in one kcal?
What is energy balance?
The total of energy in and energy out.
Does positive energy balance cause weight gain or lose?
What is Total Energy Expenditure?
Basal needs + activity levels + thermogenesis.
Is basal energy greater for a sedentary person or an active person?
Basal energy is a greater percent for a sedentary person, but higher for an active person.
Basal Energy Expenditure, the amount of energy needed to sustain basic life processes.
Basal Metabolic Rate, a measurement of oxygen consumption at rest.
How can you get a rough estimate of BMR for men?
How can you get a rough estimate of BMR for women?
What is direct calorimeter?
A measure of the heat released by the body.
What is indirect calorimeter?
A measure of oxygen consumption.
What is RMR?
Resting Metabolic Rate, the same as REE (Resting Energy Expenditure). It is often measured in place of BMR, it is just 10-20% higher than BMR.
What is LBM?
Lean Body Mass, all non-fat components. Muscles, bone, organs, and fluids. These are all metabolically active.
What link is between obesity and BMR?
As overall body fat increases, overall LBM also increases, increasing the BMR. There is an increase in muscle size, GIT size, skeletal muscle, and vasculature in fat tissue.
List the following in order of highest BMR change to lowest:
Fracture, major burn, bad infection.
Major burn, bad infection, fracture.
What is thermogenesis?
Generation of heat, the increase in the metabolic rate that occurs in response to a stimulus.
What are some types of thermogenic agents?
1. Medications/drugs (caffeine, alcohol, nicotine)
2. Exposure to cold (shivering)[adaptive thermogenesis]
3. Stress [adaptive thermogenesis]
4. Dietary-induced thermogenesis
Why does the metabolic rate rise with food intake?
Because of digestion processes (synthesis and secretion of digestion enzymes, hormones, and gut motility), absorption (an active process involving specialized transport systems), and increased biosynthesis.
What is the EER?
Estimated energy requirement, the average energy intake that will maintain energy balance in a healthy person at a given age, weight, height, ect.
What is the calculation for BMI?
Weight (kg)/height (m)^2
What is the BMI for underweight?
Fertility problems, malnutrition.
What is the BMI for normal weight?
What is the BMI for overweight?
What is the BMI for obesity?
What are the benefits of using BMI?
Reasonably accurate predictor of current health and future morbidity for most fully grown adults. It is a widely used measure of health risks associated with under and overweight individuals.
What are the limitations of using BMI?
1. Intended for adults 18 and over who have completed their growth.
2. Never for pregnant or lactating women.
3. Special considerations:
a. Children and adolescents
b. Young adults
c. Muscular athletes/adults who are lean
d. "Heavy set" but "fit" individuals
e. Certain ethnic/racial groups
f. Older adults over the age of 65
4. BMI does not address the issue of body fat distribution
What is waist circumference indicator?
Important indicator of excess abdominal or visceral fat.
What are the WC cut off points for men?
102 cm (40 inches)
What are the WC cut off points for women?
88 cm (35 inches)
What are the health risks for excess visceral fat?
2. Type 2 diabetes
3. Hypertension (high blood pressure)
4. Ischemic stroke
What are the health problems associated with overweight and obesity?
1. CHD and stroke
2. Insulin resistance (pre-diabetes)
3. Dyslipidemia (high LDL, low HDL, high TG)
6. Increases risk of some types of cancer (breast, endometrial, colon, prostate)
7. Gallbladder disease
8. Sleep apnea and respiratory problems
9. Psychosocial problems
10. Functional limitations
11. Impaired fertility
Why don't people follow dietary or health recommendations?
Convenience, transportation, not relevant to you, habit, expense, ignorance, taste preference, health issues.
What percent of attempts at weight loss fail to produce long term healthy body weight?
What is weight cycling/yoyo dieting?
Continuous weight loss and weight gain, common to gain more weight in the end than if they had not gone on the diet to begin with.
For people who are overweight, what percentage of weight loss can improve health?
How can healthy weight loss and long term weight maintenance be achieved?
1. Follow sensible balanced diet with all four food groups that is low in fat and adequate in protein.
2. Portion control.
3. Enjoy regular physical activity.
What is the blueprint for maintaining a healthy weight?
1. Decreased kcal compared to original diet (change of 500 kcal)
2. Diet must be adequate in all other nutrients (low kcal, high nutrients)
3. Diet needs high satiety value
4. Diet has to be adaptable
5. Reasonable cost
6. Easy to stick to
7. Teach, support, and result in a change in eating habits
What are predictors of success for weight control?
1. High social class
2. No family history of obesity/overweight
3. Social support
4. Physical activity
5. Behavioural self-control
6. Coping abilities
What order does the body use fuel as?
1. Glycogen stores as glucose (plus some fat)
2. [Depleted liver glycogen] Body protein is broken down through gluconeogenesis (plus some fat)
3. Ketosis [body fat converted to ketones] and LBM breakdown (plus some fat)
4. BMR decreases, depleted LBM, body will try to conserve energy
What is a crash diet?
Rapid weight loss, 4-5 pounds in 2-3 days. Fasting, liquid diets.