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Flashcards in Chapter Seven - Energy Deck (41)
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1

How many kilojoules are in one kcal?

4.18 Kj/kcal

2

What is energy balance?

The total of energy in and energy out.

3

Does positive energy balance cause weight gain or lose?

Weight gain.

4

What is Total Energy Expenditure?

Basal needs + activity levels + thermogenesis.

5

Is basal energy greater for a sedentary person or an active person?

Basal energy is a greater percent for a sedentary person, but higher for an active person.

6

Define BEE.

Basal Energy Expenditure, the amount of energy needed to sustain basic life processes.

7

Define BMR.

Basal Metabolic Rate, a measurement of oxygen consumption at rest.

8

How can you get a rough estimate of BMR for men?

1.0kcal/kg/hr.

9

How can you get a rough estimate of BMR for women?

0.9kcal/kg/hr.

10

What is direct calorimeter?

A measure of the heat released by the body.

11

What is indirect calorimeter?

A measure of oxygen consumption.

12

What is RMR?

Resting Metabolic Rate, the same as REE (Resting Energy Expenditure). It is often measured in place of BMR, it is just 10-20% higher than BMR.

13

What is LBM?

Lean Body Mass, all non-fat components. Muscles, bone, organs, and fluids. These are all metabolically active.

14

What link is between obesity and BMR?

As overall body fat increases, overall LBM also increases, increasing the BMR. There is an increase in muscle size, GIT size, skeletal muscle, and vasculature in fat tissue.

15

List the following in order of highest BMR change to lowest:
Fracture, major burn, bad infection.

Major burn, bad infection, fracture.

16

What is thermogenesis?

Generation of heat, the increase in the metabolic rate that occurs in response to a stimulus.

17

What are some types of thermogenic agents?

1. Medications/drugs (caffeine, alcohol, nicotine)
2. Exposure to cold (shivering)[adaptive thermogenesis]
3. Stress [adaptive thermogenesis]
4. Dietary-induced thermogenesis

18

Why does the metabolic rate rise with food intake?

Because of digestion processes (synthesis and secretion of digestion enzymes, hormones, and gut motility), absorption (an active process involving specialized transport systems), and increased biosynthesis.

19

What is the EER?

Estimated energy requirement, the average energy intake that will maintain energy balance in a healthy person at a given age, weight, height, ect.

20

What is the calculation for BMI?

Weight (kg)/height (m)^2

21

What is the BMI for underweight?

<18.5
Fertility problems, malnutrition.

22

What is the BMI for normal weight?

18.5-24.9

23

What is the BMI for overweight?

25.0-29.9

24

What is the BMI for obesity?

>30.0

25

What are the benefits of using BMI?

Reasonably accurate predictor of current health and future morbidity for most fully grown adults. It is a widely used measure of health risks associated with under and overweight individuals.

26

What are the limitations of using BMI?

1. Intended for adults 18 and over who have completed their growth.
2. Never for pregnant or lactating women.
3. Special considerations:
a. Children and adolescents
b. Young adults
c. Muscular athletes/adults who are lean
d. "Heavy set" but "fit" individuals
e. Certain ethnic/racial groups
f. Older adults over the age of 65
4. BMI does not address the issue of body fat distribution

27

What is waist circumference indicator?

Important indicator of excess abdominal or visceral fat.

28

What are the WC cut off points for men?

102 cm (40 inches)

29

What are the WC cut off points for women?

88 cm (35 inches)

30

What are the health risks for excess visceral fat?

1. CHD
2. Type 2 diabetes
3. Hypertension (high blood pressure)
4. Ischemic stroke