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Where does fertilization occur and what does it produce?

Occurs in the oviducts producing a single-celled zygote


How long after fertilization is the cell considered an embryo?

2 weeks.


What may happen if birth defects are severe?

A spontaneous abortion or miscarriage


When does the placenta take over the role of nourishing the embryo?

After 5 weeks


Where does the early embryo get its nourishment from?

The breakdown of the uterus


Describe the make-up of the placenta.

The placenta is made up of tissue from both the mother and the fetus. The maternal portion of the placenta develops from the uterine lining. The fetal portion of the placenta develops from the outer layer of pre-embryonic cells.


How does the makeup of the placenta allow for the passage of nutrients and oxygen from mother to child?

Close proximity of fetal blood vessels to maternal blood allows nutrients and oxygen to easily pass from mother to fetus, and allows carbon dioxide and other wastes to pass from fetus to mother for elimination.


Define small-for-gestational-age.

Infants who are born on time but have failed to grow normally in the uterus.


Define preterm or premature.

Those born before 37 weeks of gestation.


define low-birth-weight infants

Those who were born too soon or are just small. those weighing less than 2.5 kg (5.5 lbs)


define very-low-birth-weight infants

Those weighing less than 1.5 kg [3.3 lb]


What are low-birth-weight infant and very-low-birth-weight infants at heightened risk for? What do they require as a result of this?

Increased risk for illness and early death.They require special care and a special diet in order to successfully continue to grow and develop. Survival improves with increasing gestational age and birth weight.


What changes do the hormones produced by the placenta orchestrate? (4 changes)

1. They promote uterine growth2. They relax muscles and ligaments to accommodate the growing fetus and allow for childbirth3. They promote breast development4. They increase fat deposition to provide the energy stores that will be needed during late pregnancy and lactation.


What is the recommended weight-gain for a healthy, adult women during pregnancy?

11.5 −16 kg (25-35 lb)


What percentage of the the total weight-gain during regency can be attributed to the weight of the infant at birth?



What factors in pregnancy account for weight gain? (4)

1. The infant2. Placenta3. Amniotic Fluid4. Changes in maternal tissues


What is the recommended maternal weight gain per week in the second and third trimester?

0.5kg (1lb)


What are the risks associated with being underweight by 10% or more during pregnancy? (2)

1. Infant will be premature2. Increase the child's risk of developing heart disease or diabetes later in life.


In what ways can excess weight compromise the pregnancy for the mother? (4)

1. high blood pressure2. diabetes3. difficult delivery, and Caesarean section 4. having a large-for-gestational-age baby


In what ways can excess weight compromise the pregnancy for the infant? (2)

1. increase the risk of neural tube defects 2. increase of fetal death


What is the ideal BMI for women entering into pregnancy?

lower than 25 or if impossible 30.


Why is gradual weight loss for the mother important after the baby is born?

When the mother is breastfeeding it is important that milk production is not compromised.


Is it appropriate for a women to exercise during pregnancy?

healthy women without contraindications can safely engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises with appropriate precautions


What are some benefits of exercise during pregnancy? (6)

1. improved maternal fitness2. less weight gain during pregnancy3. easier labour and delivery4. better posture and reduced back pain5. reduced risk of developing diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes)6. reduced blood pressure


When in pregnancy is it considered to be the best time to begin an exercise program?

During the second trimester. the third trimester may limit some activities.


Describe Edema.

During pregnancy, blood volume expands to nourish the fetus, but this expansion may also cause the accumulation of extracellular fluid in the tissues. It is common in the feet and ankles.


Describe Morning Sickness.

A syndrome of nausea and vomiting that occurs in about 80% of women during pregnancy.


Describe Heartburn.

A burning sensation caused by stomach acid leaking up into the esophagus, is another common digestive complaint during pregnancy because the hormones produced to relax the muscles of the uterus also relax the muscles of the gastrointestinal tract. This involuntary relaxation of the gastroesophageal sphincter allows the acidic stomach contents to back up into the esophagus, causing irritation.


Describe Constipation.

The pregnancy-related hormones that cause muscles to relax also decrease intestinal motility and slow transit time.


Describe Hemorrhoids.

Are a result of both constipation and physiological changes in blood flow.