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How do we describe our diet? (2)

1. In terms of food2. In terms of nutrients


The food guide from 1977

Made all groups appear to be equally important


The food guide from 1992

Created for a grade 7 level, english speaking student


Why is the rainbow significant?

Because it is proportional to the intake


EWCFG (2007)

The first food guide with recommendations for children.


Facts About Mediterranean Food Guide (5)

1. Has a 3D base2. Largest category consists of things made from plants (nutritious and deeply coloured veggies)3. Fish are highly emphasized4. Wine is on their food guide (<2 for men)5. Emphasizing eating food with others (eating slower for pleasure and to relax)


Asian Diet Pyramid and Vegetarian Pyramid Facts (3)

1. Exercise is emphasized first2. Plants and healthy fats3. Sweets are higher then sweets on the asian pyramid..


What do all food guides have in common?

They emphasize plant and grain products.


The Nutrients (6)

1. Carbohydrates2. Proteins3. Fats4. Vitamins5. Minerals6. Dietary Fibre


Essential Nutrients

Things that the body cannot make itself.


Essential Carbs, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and fibre

1. Glucose2. 9 are essential and 11 can only be made if the body gets enough of the other 93. Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid4. All 13 are essential except Vit D if someone is near the sun enough5. All are essential (this course focuses on iron, calcium, and sodium)6. Fibre is essential


How do we describe our nutrient intake? (2)

1. Absolute amount eaten/day (Mg, mg, g, niacin equivalent)2. As a percentage of our total energy (kcal) eaten in a day (macronutrients)


What is the equivalent of 1 Cal?

1000 calories= 1 Kcal= 1Cal


Atwater Factors for Macronutrients

1g Carb= 4Kcal (17KJ)1g Protein= 4Kcal (17KJ)1g Fat= 9Kcal (38KJ)1g Alcohol= 7Kcal (??)


DRI Values for % Energy Intake

Protein: 10-35%Fat: 20-35%CHO: 45-65%


Average Kcal intake in a day



What happened when the media told people fat was bad?

-People cut fat and ate more carbs-People ate lower quality foods because they were 'low in fat'


What are the 3 trends that appear in Canadian diets?

1. Canadians have a lower % of fat intake, and have approximately 30% fat from their diets, however 'Other' foods account for a total of 25% of total energy and 30% of total fat2. Obesity has become an epidemic3. A large % of the population isn't eating even the minimum of their recommended portions from any of the 4 food groups


Why has overweight/obesity become an epidemic? (2)

1. Lowered levels of physical activity2. "Toxic Food Environment" or obesegenic (constant exposure to high fat and Kcal intake)


Portion Distortion

The largely increased intake of fast foods compared to 40 years ago. e.g. soft drinks increased 62%, french fries increased 57%, and cheeseburgers increased 24%


What are the mains nutrients that are not being received enough in the diet and are leading to many chronic diseases?

Ca (milk and alt.), Fe and Zn (meat and alt. & whole grains), Folate (green leafies & orange juice), and fibre (plant origin)


3 Main Nutrition Recommendations for Canadians

1. Balance: Proportion 2. Variety: Dilute anything bad3. Moderation: Don't eat too much (portion distortion)


Nutrient-based DRIs Background and Purpose

The recommendations used to be to prevent nutrient deficiencies, now its is to do that and to optimize health and prevent chronic diseases


Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)

The amount of nutrients which meet the needs of half the populations


Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)

The average daily nutrient amount that covers almost all healthy people in the population (98%). Can be calculated from the EAR but the EAR cannot be calculated from the RDA.


Adequate Intake (IA)

When EAR is unknown and therefore RDA cannot be set AI is used. It is the average daily nutrient level which appears to cover the needs of the population.


Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)

Maximum amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most of the healthy people in the population. If one were to go above the UL they may experience adverse health effects.


Findings of the 'Health Survey' (CCHS)

Found that many Canadians are not consuming as many nutritious foods as they are foods from the 'other' category. 17-28% of adults consume more than the recommended level of fat.


What does and unhealthy diet and a lack of physical activity result in? (2)

1. Higher levels of obesity2. Chronic Disease (heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers)


How many essential nutrients are there?

45 nutrients are essential for human life (anything our body cannot synthesize).