Flashcards in Chapter Seven: Energy (Key Terms and Practice Questions) Deck (43):
What internal signals stimulate a person to acquire and consume food?
What is the EER?
Estimated Energy Requirements, the amount of energy recommended by the DRIs to maintain body weight in a healthy person based on age, size, gender, and activity level.
What is Skinfold Thickness?
A measurement of subcutaneous fat used to estimate total body fat.
What is the Thermic Effect of Food (TEF) or diet-induced thermogenesis?
The energy required for the digestion of food and the absorption, metabolism, and storage of nutrients. It is equal to approximately 10% of daily energy intake.
What is Comorbidity?
When two disease states of health conditions occur together (e.g. obesity and type two diabetes).
What is the BMR?
Basal metabolic rate, the rate of energy expenditure under resting conditions. BMR measurements are performed in a warm room in the morning before the subject rises, and and at least 12 hours after the last food or activity.
What is BEE?
Basal energy expenditure, the energy expended to maintain an awake resting body that is not digesting food.
What is Adaptive Thermogenesis?
The change in energy expenditure induced by factors such as changes in ambient temperature and food intake.
What is PA value?
Physical activity value, a numeric value associated with activity level that is a variable in the EER equations used to calculate energy needs.
What is energy balance?
The amount of energy consumed in the diet compared with the amount expended by the body over a given period.
What is weight cycling/yoyo dieting?
The repeated loss and regain of body weight.
What is ghrelin?
A hormone produced by the stomach the stimulates food intake.
What is gastric bypass surgery?
A surgical procedure to treat morbid obesity that both reduces the size of the stomach and bypasses a portion of the small intestine.
What is indirect calorimetry?
A method of estimating energy use that compares the amount of oxygen consumed to the amount of carbon dioxide exhaled.
What is gastric banding?
A surgical procedure in which an adjustable band is placed around the upper portion of the stomach to limit the volume that the stomach can hold and the rate of the stomach emptying.
What is behaviour modification?
A process used to gradually and permanently change habitual behaviours.
What is bioelectric impedance analysis?
A technique for estimating body composition that measures body fat by directing a low energy electric current through the body and calculating resistance to flow.
What is BMI?
Body mass index, a measure of body weight in relation to height that is used to compare body size to a standard.
What is underwater weighing?
A technique that uses the difference between body weight underwater and body weight on land to estimate body density and calculate body composition.
What is TEE?
Total energy expenditure, the sum of the energy used for basal metabolism, activity, processing food, deposition of new tissue, and production of milk.
What is REE or RMR?
Resting energy expenditure or resting metabolic rate, terms used when an estimate of basal metabolism is determined by measuring energy utilization after 5-6 hours without food or exercise.
What is direct calorimetry?
A method of determining energy use that measures the amount of heat produced.
What is the BMI for being overweight?
How many kcalories are in a 'very low kcalorie diet'?
Less than 800 kcalories per day
What is lean body mass?
Body mass attributed to nonfat body components such as bone, muscle, and internal organs. May also be called fat-free mass.
What is Leptin?
A protein hormone that regulates the size of body fat stores and helps regulate satiety levels. Produced by adipocytes.
What is a protein sparing modified fast?
A very low kcalorie diet with a high proportion of protein, designed to maximize the loss of fat and minimize the loss of protein from the body.
What is satiety?
The feeling of fullness and satisfaction, caused by food consumption, that eliminates the desire to eat.
What is liposuction?
A procedure that suctions out adipose tissue from under the skin; used to decrease the size of local fat deposits such as on the abdomen or hips.
What is appetite?
The desire to consume specific foods that is independent of hunger.
What are obesity genes?
Genes that code for proteins involved in the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure, or the deposition of body fat. When they are abnormal, the result is abnormal amounts of body fat.
What is set point theory?
The theory that when people finish growing, their weight remains relatively stable for long periods despite periodic changes in energy intake or output.
What is the BMI for obesity?
Greater than 30.0 kg/m^2
What is subcutaneous fat?
Adipose tissue that is located under the skin.
What is bomb calorimeter?
An instrument used to determine the energy content of food. It measures the heat energy released when a dried food is combusted.
What is doubly labelled water technique?
A method for measuring energy expenditure based on measuring the disappearance of heave isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in body fluids after consumption of a defined amount of water labelled with both isotopes.
What is brown adipose tissue?
A type of fat tissue that has a greater number of mitochondria than the more common white adipose tissue. It can waste energy by producing heat.
What is visceral fat?
Adipose tissue that is located in the abdomen around the body's internal organs.
What are adipocytes?
Fat storing cells.
What is Non-exercise Activity Thermogenesis? (NEAT)
The energy expended for everything we do other than sleeping, eating, or sportslike exercise.
What very low calorie diet with a high proportion of protein is designed to maximize the loss of fat and minimize the loss of protein from the body?
A protein sparing modified fast.
What is the method of determining energy use that measures the amount of heat produced?