Chapter Seven - LTM (Encoding, Retrieval, Consolidation) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter Seven - LTM (Encoding, Retrieval, Consolidation) Deck (77):
1

What is encoding?

-process of acquiring info
-transforming it into LTM

2

What is retrieval?

-transferring info from LTM to WM

3

What are 2 ways of getting info into LTM?

1. maintenance rehearsal
2. elaborative rehearsal

4

What is maintenance rehearsal?

-repetition of stimuli that maintains info
-does not transfer it to LTM

5

What is elaborative rehearsal?

-using meanings + connections
-results in better memory than maintenance rehearsal

6

What is the levels of processing theory?

-memory depends on how info is encoded

7

Memory depends on the _____ of processing

depth

8

3 characteristics of shallow processing

1. little attention to meaning
2. focus on physical features
3. poor memory

9

2 characteristics of deep processing

1. close attention to meaning
2. better memory

10

What were the 3 types of questions in the Craik + Tulving experiment?

1. physical features of word (shallow)
2. rhyming
3. fill-in-the-blanks (deep)

11

What is a problem with the levels of processing theory?

-depth of processing has not been defined independently of memory performance
-circular reasoning

12

What is visual imagery?

-"images" in the head
-can connect words visually

13

What is the basis of paired-associate learning?

-list of word pairs presented
-first word of each pair presented

14

What was the design and results of the paired-associate learning experiment?

Group A: repeat pairs
Group B: form mental picture of 2 items interacting
-Group B remembered twice as much as Group A

15

What is the self reference effect?

-memory is better if asked to link words to yourself

16

What is the generation effect?

-generating material yourself, rather than passively receiving it, enhances learning

17

What is a retrieval cue?

-a word/other stimulus that helps a person remember information

18

What did Bransford + Johnson find?

-if organization helps memory
-preventing it should reduce the ability to remember

19

What was Bransford + Johnson's experiment?

-presented participants with difficult-to-comprehend info
-Group 1 first saw picture (help explain info)
-Group 2 saw pic after reading passage
-Control: no pic

20

What was the result of Bransford + Johnson's experiment?

-group 1 (picture before) outperformed other groups
-mental framework of comprehension aided memory encoding + retrieval

21

What is the testing effect?

enhanced performance due to retrieval practice

22

-methods that increase richness of representation sin memory by providing _________ between material to be remembered and other material in memory aid encoding

connections

23

What must happen to material that has been encoded before it can be used?

-retrieved

24

What is retrieval?

-process of transferring info from LTM back into WM

25

Most of our failures of memory are ______

failures to retrieve

26

What are retrieval cues?

stimuli that help us remember information stored in our memory

27

What are 2 types of recall procedures?

-free recall
-cued-recall

28

What is free recall?

-subjects simply asked to recall stimuli

29

What is cued-recall?

cue presented to aid recall of previously experienced stimuli (increased performance)

30

According to Mantyla (1986), retrieval cues are most effective when created by ______

person who uses them
EX: banana experiment

31

How can retrieval be increased?

-by matching conditions at retrieval to conditions that existed at encoding

32

What are 3 different ways to achieve matching between retrieval + encoding conditions?

1. encoding specificity
2. state-dependent learning
3. transfer-appropriate processing

33

What is encoding specificity?

matching context in which encoding and retrieval occur

34

What is state-dependent learning?

matching internal mood present during encoding and retrieval

35

What is is transfer-appropriate processing?

matching the task involved in encoding + retrieval

36

What was the "diving experiment?"

two learning conditions:
1. underwater
2. on land

two testing conditions:
1. underwater
2. on land

37

What were the results of the diving experiment?

best recall when encoding + retrieval occurred at the same location

38

What was the noisy/quiet learning experiment?

two learning conditions:
1. headphones
2. quiet

two testing conditions:
1. wearing headphones
2. quiet

39

What was the result of the noisy/quiet learning experiment?

best recall when test condition matched the study condition

40

What is state dependent learning?

when learning is associated with particular internal state

41

What is the happy/sad learning experiment?

two learning conditions:
1. pos thoughts + merry music
2. neg thoughts + sad music

two testing conditions

42

What is transfer-appropriate processing?

-phenomenon whereby results of memory task will be better if type of processing used during encoding is same as type during retrieval

43

What were the two encoding conditions of Morris's transfer appropriate processing task?

1. meaning: answered based on meaning of word
2. rhyming: answered based on sound of word

44

What does the levels of processing theory predict about the transfer appropriate processing task?

-predict that meaning group should've gotten higher recall
-thinking about meaning results in deeper relations

45

What were the results of Morris's transfer appropriate processing task?

-rhyming group performed better
-deeper processing at encoding does not always result in better retrieval

46

What is consolidation?

-process that transforms new memories from a fragile state to a more permanent state

47

What happens to synapses during recall?

-synapses cause NT to be released on to the next neuron

48

What are 2 types of consolidation?

1. synaptic consolidation
2. systems consolidation

49

What is synaptic consolidation?

-occurs at synapses, happens rapidly

50

What is systems consolidation?

-involves gradual reorganization of circuits in brain

51

What did Hebb find about information storage at the synapse?

-learning + memory represented in brain by physiological changes at synapse
-neural record of experience

52

How can repeated activity strengthen the synapse?

by causing
-structural changes
-greater transmitter release
-increased firing

53

What is long term potentiation?

-enhanced firing of neurons after repeated stimulation
-structural changes + enhanced responding

54

What are neural records of experience?

-changes that occur in hundreds/thousands of synapses that are activated around the same time by a particular experience

55

What are the 5 steps of the standard model of consolidation?

1a. incoming info activates number of areas in cortex
1b. cortex communicates with hippocampus
1c. hippocampus coordinates communication between different regions in cortex
2. reactivation
3. form direct connections between various cortical areas

56

What is reactivation?

hippocampus replays neural activity associated with memory

57

Retrieval depends on the ______.

hippocampus

58

retrograde amnesia

loss of memory for events prior to trauma

59

graded amnesia

memory for recent events more fragile than for remote events

60

What does the standard model say about graded amnesia?

-gradual decrease corresponds to changes in connections between hippocampus and cortical areas

61

What is the hippocampus's overall role in the standard model?

-strongly active when memories first formed
-less involved during consolidation

62

What is the brain processes for remote memories?

-connection between cortical areas are sufficient (no necessary for hippocampus)

63

What is the multiple trace hypothesis?

-questions assumption that hippocampus is important only at beginning of consolidation

64

How has the hippocampus been show to be activated during retrieval of both recent/remote memories?

-subjects saw pics of themselves
-some recently, some past
-hippocampus active during both conditions

65

response of hippocampus can change ______

over time

66

How can the response of the hippocampus change over time?

-hippocampus remains involved in retrieval of episodic memories
-not in semantic memory

67

When is reactivation particularly strong? Why?

-during sleep
-elimination of environmental stimuli
-consolidation enhanced during sleep

68

What was Wilehm's experiment showing that some memories more likely to be consolidated than others?

-2 groups learned task
Group A: tested on this task
Group B: tested on different task
Both groups: sleep

69

What did Wilehm's experiment show?

-group A showed better memory for task

70

What happens in terms of consolidation during sleep?

-selectively consolidate memories for things that might be most useful to remember

71

Are memories permanent?

-we update memories
-constantly learning new things/modifying info stored

72

When a memory is retrieved it becomes ____

fragile

73

What happens when a memory is fragile

-needs to be consolidated again
-reconsolidation
-updates can take place during this process

74

What was Nader et. al's experiment?

-antibiotic that prevents changes at synapses responsible for formation of new memroy

75

What was Hupbach's experiment?

-3 day experiment
-"reminder group" no "reminder"

76

What is a practical outcome of reconsolidation?

possible treatment of PTST

77

what are 2 methods of improving learning + memory?

-elaborate
-generate and test