Chapters 17 and 18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 17 and 18 Deck (58):
1

Cerebrum consists of the:

diencephalon
cerebral hemispheres

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Cerebral hemispheres

subcortical structures
cerebral cortex

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Subcortical structures

subcortical white matter
basal ganglia

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Functions of cerebrum:

perception, voluntary movements, using language and nonverbal communication, understanding spatial relationship, using visual information, making decisions, consciousness, emotions, mind-body interactions and memory - COGNITION

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Cognition:

the neural processes by which the brain integrates meaningful stimuli, memory, and internal motivations producing perceptional awareness and appropriate behavio

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Diencephalon

hypothalamus
epithalamus
subthalamus

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Fuctional groups of thalamus

relay nuclei
association nuclei
nonspecific nuclei

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Relay nuclei

convey information from the sensory systems (except for olfactory), the basal ganglia, or the cerebellum to the cerebral cortex

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Association nuclei

process emotional and some memory information or integrate different types of sensation

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Non specific nuclei

regulate consciousness, arousal, and attention

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Functions of hypothalamus

Maintaining homeostasis
Eating, reproductive, and defensive behaviors
Emotional expression of pleasure, rage, fear, and aversion
Regulation of circadian rhythms in concert with other brain regions
Endocrine regulation of growth, metabolism, and reproductive organs

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Major structure of epithalamus

pineal gland

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Pineal gland

believed to help regulate circadian rhythms and to influence the secretions of the pituitary gland, adrenal and parathyroid glands, and the islets of Langerhans

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Subthalamus

Is part of the basal ganglia circuit, which is involved in regulating movement.
Facilitates basal ganglia output nuclei

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Classifications of subcortical white matter:

Projection fibers
Commissural fibers
Association fibers

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Projection Fibers

extend from subcortical structures to the cerebral cortex and from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord, brainstem, brainstem and thalamu

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Commissural fibers:

Connect homologous areas of both cerebral hemispheres.
Corpus callosum is the largest group of commissural fibers, linking many areas of the right and left hemispheres

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Association fibers

Connect cortical regions within one hemisphere.
Short association fibers connect adjacent gyri, whereas the long association fibers connect lobes within one hemisphere

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Basal ganglia

movements, regulate muscle tone and muscle force

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Cognitive functions of basal ganglia:

Executive function (goal-directed behavior)
Sustained attention
Ability to change behavior as task requirements change (behavioral flexibility and control loop)
Motivation

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Most common cortical neurons:

Pyramidal
Fusiform and
Stellate cells

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Five categories of cerebral cortex

Primary sensory cortex
Secondary sensory cortex
Primary motor cortex
Motor planning area
Association cortex

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Primary sensory area:

Discriminates among different intensities and qualities of sensory information

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Secondary sensory cortex:

Performs more complex analysis of sensation

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Primary motor cortex:

Provides descending control of motor output

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Motor planning area

organize movements

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Association cortex:

Controls behavior, interprets sensation, and processes emotions and memories

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Motor planning areas (3):

supplementary motor area
premotor area
Broca's area

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Supplementary motor area:

Is important for the initiation of movement, orientation of the eyes and head, and planning bimanual and sequential movements

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Premotor area

Controls trunk and girdle muscles via the medial upper motor neurons

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Broca's area:

Is responsible for planning movements of the mouth during speech and the grammatical aspects of language. It is usually in the left hemisphere

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Association areas:

Dorsolateral Prefontal Cortex
Parietotemporal Asso. Cortex
Ventral and Medial Dorsal Prefrontal Assocs. Cortex

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Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

Functions include self-awareness and executive functions
basal ganglia functional loop

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Executive functions of dorsolateral prefrontal Cortex:

Deciding on a goal
Planning how to accomplish the goal
Executing a plan
Monitoring the execution of the plan

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Parietotemporal Association Cortex:

Cognitive intelligence
Problem-solving and comprehension of communication and of spatial relationships

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Ventral and Medial Dorsal prefrontal Association cortex:

impulse control, personality, and reactions to surroundings

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Ventral prefrontal association area:

connects with areas that regulate mood (subjective feelings) and affect (observable demeanor)

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Medial dorsal prefrontal cortex:

perceives other’s emotions and makes assumptions about what other people believe and their intentions

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Three types of memory:

working
declarative
procedural

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Working

temporary storage and manipulation of information

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Declarative:

facts, events, concepts, and locations

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Procedural

knowledge of how to do actions and skills
skill, habit, nonconscious memory, or implicit memory

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Three stages identified for motor learning:

Cognitive
Associative
Automatic

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Where does comprehension of spoken language occur?

Wernicke’s area.

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Broca's area:

left frontal lobe, provides instructions for language output

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Disorder of primary sensory area:

Loss of Discriminative Sensory Information

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Disorders of secondary sensory area:

agnosis:
asterognosis
visual agnosia
prosopagnosia

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Disorder to motor planning area:

apraxia

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Apraxia:

knowledge of how to perform a skill is lost

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Constructional apraxia:

Deficit impairs the ability to draw and to arrange objects correctly in space

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Motor perservation:

uncontrollable repetition of a movement

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Broca's aphasia:

difficulty expressing oneself using language or symbols

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Disorders of primary motor cortex

dysarthria

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Dysarthria

speech disorder resulting from spasticity or paresis of the muscles used for speaking

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Spastic dysarthria

Is caused by damage to the upper motor neurons.
Is characterized by harsh, awkward speech

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Flaccid dyarthria:

Is caused by damage to the lower motor neurons (CN IX, X, XII).
Is characterized by paresis of speech muscles

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Disorders of dorsolateral prefrontal association cortex:

causes apathy, lack of goal-directed behavior, difficulty with executive functions: choosing goals, planning, executing plans, and monitoring the execution of a pla

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Disorder of parietotemporal association area:

Damage to this area in the LEFT hemisphere causes Wernicke’s aphasia.
Damage to the same area in the RIGHT hemisphere causes deficits in directing attention, comprehending space and understanding nonverbal communication