Chapter 14 Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Part 1 Deck (46):
1

What kind of nerves are cranial nerves?

sensory, motor, and autonomic functions

2

How do cranial nerves differ from other nerves?

Some are only motor, others are only sensory, and some are both sensory and motor - mixed

3

What are the functions of cranial nerves?

1. Transmit somatosensory information
2. Transmit special sensory information
3. Supply motor innervation
4. Provide parasympathetic regulation

4

From where do cranial nerves transmit somatosensory information?

from the skin and muscles of the face and from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)

5

From where do cranial nerves transmit special sensory information?

related to visual, auditory, vestibular, gustatory, olfactory, and visceral sensations

6

From where do cranial nerves supply motor innervation?

to the muscles of the face, eyes, tongue, jaw, and two neck muscles

7

From where do cranial nerves provide parasympathetic regulation?

of pupil size, curvature of the lens of the eye, HR, BP, breathing, and digestion

8

Cranial Nerve I

olfactory
sensory
smell

9

Cranial Nerve II

Optic nerve
sensory
vision

10

Cranial Nerve III

Oculomotor nerve
motor
eye movements

11

Cranial Nerve IV

Trochlear nerve
motor
eye movements

12

Cranial Nerve V

Trigeminal nerve
sensory and motor
somatic sensation from face, mouth; muscles of mastication

13

Cranial Nerve VI

Abducens
Motor
eye movements

14

Cranial Nerve VII

Facial
sensory and motor
muscles of facial expression, lacrimal and salivary glands, taste

15

Cranial Nerve VIII

vestibulocochlear
sensory
hearing, balance

16

Cranial Nerve IX

glossopharyngeal
sensory and motor
posterior tongue
carotid baroreceptors and chemoreceptors

17

Cranial Nerve X

Vagus
sensory and motor
autonomic functions of the gut

18

Cranial Nerve XI

Spinal accessory
motor
shoulder and neck muscles

19

Cranial Nerve XII

motor
movements of tongue

20

Where does the olfactory transmit information?

nasal chemoreceptors to olfactory bulb

21

Where does the optic nerve transmit visual information from the retina?

to lateral geniculate body of thalamus
to nuclei in midbrain

22

What are the four straight muscles of the eye?

lateral, medial, superior and inferior rectus

23

What are the two oblique muscles of the eye?

superior and inferior

24

Muscles oculomotor controls:

superior,medial and inferior rectus
inferior oblique

25

Muscles trochlear controls:

superior oblique

26

Muscles abducens controls:

lateral rectus

27

How is coordination between the two eyes maintained?

synergistic action

28

Head and eye movement coordination is controlled by signals where?

medial longitudinal lemniscus of brainstem

29

What do parasympathetic neurons in CN III do?

elicit reflexive constriction of the pupil and contraction of the muscles controlling the lens of the eye

30

What is accommodation?

When viewing objects closer than 20 cm, the ciliary muscle contracts, which increases the curvature of the lens

31

What is pupillary reflex?

the constriction of the pupil in the eye directly stimulated by the bright light

32

What is consensual reflex?

the constriction of the pupil in the other eye

33

How are pupillary and consensual reflexes elicited?

the same stimulus (e.g., shining a bright light into one eye).

34

What cranial nerves are involved in pupillary and consensual reflexes?

CN II and CN III

35

What happens during the accommodation reflex

The pupils constrict.
The eyes converge.
The lens becomes more convex

36

Three branches of trigeminal nerve:

Ophthalmic
Maxillary
Mandibular

37

Ophthalmic:

sensory information

38

Maxillary

sensory information

39

Mandibular:

sensory and motor information

40

Trigeminal nerve reflexes:

afferent and efferent limb of masseter reflex
afferent limb of corneal (blink) reflex

41

Where are signals processed for cranial nerve VII:

processed in the nuclei located in the pons, medulla, and upper spinal cord

42

Two branches of cranial nerve VIII:

vestibular
cochlear

43

Vestibular branch

transmits information related to head position and head movement

44

Cochlear

transmits information related to hearing

45

Where are the receptors located for cranial nerve VIII?

labyrinth of the inner ear that consists of the vestibular apparatus and the cochlea

46

What structures is auditory information transmitted to?

medial geniculate body
inferior colliculus
reticular formation