Chapter 19 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19 Deck (24):
1

Support systems of neurons and glial cells:

ventricular system
vascular system

2

Ventricular system:

ventricles, meninges and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

3

Vascular system:

arterial supply, veins and venous sinuses and mechanisms to regulate blood flow

4

Three layers of meninges that cover brain and spinal cord:

dura matter
arachnoid
pia matter

5

Dura matter

Surrounds the brain and consists of an outer layer firmly bound to the inside of the skull and an inner layer.

6

Arachnoid

Is a delicate membrane loosely attached to the dura.

7

Pia matter

Is tightly apposed to the surfaces of the brain and spinal cord

8

What is most CSF secreted by?

choroid plexus

9

Flow of CSF:

from lateral ventricles into 3rd via interentricular foramina
from 3rd to 4th via cerebral awueduct

10

How does CSF exit the 4th ventricle?

entering the subarachnoid space (SAS) via lateral & medial foramina

11

Transient ischemic attack

brief, focal loss of brain function with a full recovery from neurologic deficits within 24 hours

12

Completed stroke

neurologic deficits from vascular disorders that persist more than 1 day and are stable

13

Progressive stroke

deficits that increase intermittently over time

14

Brain infarction

an embolus or thrombus lodges in a vessel, obstructing the blood flow
causes 80% if strokes

15

Hemorrhage

Downstream vessels are deprived of blood, and the extravascular blood exerts pressure on the surrounding brain

16

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

causes sudden, excruciating headache with a brief (a few minutes) loss of consciousness
deficits are progressive

17

Chief symptom of vertebral artery dissection:

pain, usually in the posterior neck or occiput and spreading to the shoulders.

18

Vertebrobasilar artery ischemia

The most common signs are gait and limb ataxia, limb weakness, oculomotor palsies, and oropharyngeal dysfunction

19

Occlusion of Anterior Cerebral Artery

personality changes with contralateral hemiplegia and hemisensory loss

20

Occlusion of Middle Cerebral Artery

homonymous hemianopia combined with contralateral hemiplegia and hemisensory loss involving the upper limb and face (cortical branches)
contralateral hemiplegia that equally affects the upper and lower extremities and the face (the deep branches)

21

Occlusion of Posterior Cerebral Artery

contralateral hemiparesis, eye movement paresis or paralysis affecting muscles controlling eye movements (midbrain branches)

22

Complete occlusion of the basilar artery causes

death as a result of ischemia of brainstem nuclei and tracts that control vital functions.

23

Partial occlusions of the basilar artery can cause

tetraplegia, loss of sensation, coma, and cranial nerve signs

24

What does consequences of a stroke depend on:

cause, severity, and location