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Flashcards in Week 1 Deck (56):
1

Neuroscience definition

The study of the brain and nervous system

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Cellular neuroscience

considers distinctions among different types of cells in the nervous system and how each cell type functions

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Molecular neuroscience

investigates the chemistry and physics involved in neural function

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Systems neuroscience

investigates groups of neurons that perform a common function (motor, visual system)

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Behavioral neuroscience

examines the interaction among systems that influence behavior

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Cognitive neuroscience

covers the fields of thinking, learning, and memory.

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Central Nervous System

cerebral region
brainstem and cerebellar region
spinal cord

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Peripheral Nervous System

all nervous system structures NOT encased in bone
spinal nerves
cranial nerves

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Sagittal plane

right and left portions

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Horizontal or Axial plane

above or below portions

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Coronal plane

anterior and posterior portions

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Gyrus (gyri)

ridges

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Sulcus (sulci)

grooves or fissure if deep

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Central sulcus

one of the most important landmarks in the cerebral cortex

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Precentral gyrus

somatic motor cortex

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Postcentral gyrus

somatic sensory cortex

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Frontal Lobe Gyri

superior frontal gyrus
middle frontal gyrus
inferior frontal gyrus

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Frontal Lobe Sulci

superior frontal sulcus
inferior frontal sulcus

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Temporal Lobe Gyri

superior temporal gyrus
middle temporal gyrus
inferior temporal gyrus

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Temporal Lobe Sulci

superior temporal sulcus
inferior temporal sulcus

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Parietal Lobe Gyri

superior parietal lobe
inferior parietal lobe

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Parietal Lobe Sulcus

intra-parietal sulcus

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Longitudinal fissure

separates brain into 2 hemisphere

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Components of a neuron:

cell body (soma)
dendrites
axon
pre-synaptic terminals

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Gray matter

areas of the CNS that primarily contain neuronal cell bodies and dendrites

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White matter

composed of axons, projections of neurons

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Surface of the brain is called

cortex

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Nucleus

groups of the cell bodies in the CNS

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Ganglion (ganglia)

groups of cell bodies in the PNS

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Tract, lemniscus, column, peduncle

bundle of myelinated axons that travel together in CNS

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Afferent axons

carry information toward CNS
transmits sensory information to CNS

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Efferent axons

carry information away from CNS
carry motor commands from CNS to skeletal muscles

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2 main functions of spinal cord:

1. convey information between neurons innervating peripheral structures and the brain
2. to process information within the cord (reflex)

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Parts of Brainstem

1. midbrain
2. pons
3. medulla

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Midbrain

superior section of brainstem
two cranial nerves arise from brainstem

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Pon

Four cranial nerves attach
middle section

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Medulla

inferior section of the brainstem and continuous with spinal cord
four cranial nerves

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Sensory cranial nerves

olfactory (I), optic (II), vestibulocohlear (VIII)

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Motor cranial nerves

oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), abducens (VI), accessory (XI), hypoglossal (XII)

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Mixed cranial nerves

trigeminal (V), facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX). vagus (X)

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Cerebellum

function is to coordinate movement
consists of two large cerebellar hemispheres and a midline vermis

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Cerebrum consisits of:

diencephalon
cerebral hemispheres

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Diencephalon consists of

1. thalamus
2 hypthalamus
3. epithalamus
4. subthalamus

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Thalamus

large, egg-shaped collection of nuclei in the center of the cerebrum
- relay information to the cerebral cortex
- process emotional and some memory info, regulate consciousness, arousal and attention

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Hypothalamus

Maintains body temperature, metabolic rate, and chemical composition of tissues and fluids.

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Epithalamus

Pineal gland influences the secretion of other endocrine glands.

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Subthalamus

Part of a neural circuit controls movement

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Lobes of the cerebral hemispheres:

1. frontal
2. parietal
3. temporal
4. occipital
5. limbic
6. insular

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Cerebrum (cerebral cortex)

- Processes sensory, motor, and memory information.
- Is the site for reasoning, language, nonverbal communication, intelligence, and personality.

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Limbic lobe/system

involved in emotions and the processing of some types of memory

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Insular

beneath the frontal, temporal and parietal lobes; responsible for visceral, autonomic and taste functions

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Basal Ganglia

Basal ganglia nuclei in the cerebral hemispheres are the caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus.

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Caudate and putamen together are called

Corpus striatum

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Putamen and globus pallidus together are called

lenticular nucleus

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Incidence

proportion of a population that develops a new case of the disorder within a defined period

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Prevalence

current proportion of the population with the disorder (old and new cases)