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Flashcards in Chemical Bonding and other stuff for test Deck (50)
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Octet rule

Atoms form bonds in order to attain stability and the electron configuration of the nearest noble gas


Stable octet

All orbitals are completely filled in outermost energy level, noble gases have this, s and p orbitals filled, 8 electrons


What are the types of chemical bonds

Ionic, covalent, metallic


Ionic bond

Due to transfer of electrons


Covalent bond

Due to sharing of electrons


Metallic bond

Due to attraction of metallic cations for delocalized electrons


What are properties of ionic bond

Result from electrostatic (refers to interaction between charges + and -) interactions among ions
Formed by transfer of electrons between atoms or groups of atoms
Occur between metals and Nonmetals or polyatomic ions (cations smaller than original atom)


Properties of covalent bond

(Together, outer electron)
Results from sharing electrons between atoms
Occur between Nonmetals (form molecules ?)



Neutral groups of atoms held together by covalent bond



Charged particle, while molecule is neutral



Protons and neutrons cancel each other out / balance each other / equal


What are the kinds of covalent bonds

Single covalent bond, double covalent bond, triple covalent bond


Single covalent bond

Two atoms share two electrons
Represented: -


Double covalent bond

2 atoms share 4 electrons
Rep: =


Triple covalent bond

2 atoms share 6 electrons
- rep


What are metallic bond properties

Delocalized electrons in this
Results from the electrical attractions among positively charged metal ions (metal cations) and mobile delocalized electrons


Ionic compound properties

High melting point temperatures due to fixed arrangement of ions
Many are soluble (dissolve) in polar solvents (substance that dissolves something else) such as water (which is a polar solvent)
Most are insoluble in no polar solvents such as hexane (nonpolar solvent) (C6H14h
Molten (melting) compounds conduct electricity well
Aqueous (dissolves in water) solutions conduct electricity well


Conclusions about ionic compounds based on properties

Have specific crystalline structures (exist as crystalline solids)
Interact with polar substances because of ionic charges
Do not interact with nonpolar substances bc of ionic charges
Conduct electricity when ions are able to move (have to be able to move)


Covalent compound properties

Exist as gases, liquids, or low melting solids (powdery, easier to break than ionic compound)
Many are insoluble in polar solvents (opposite ionic)
Most are soluble in nonpolar solvents ( opp ionic)
Molten compounds do not conduct electricity
Aqueous solutions are poor conductors of electricity bc most do not contain charged particles
Covalent=molecule=neutral=can't conduct electricity


Conclusions based on covalent compound properties

Atomic arrangements are not as ordered as ionic compounds
Don't interact with polar solvents bc they don't contain charges
Do interact with nonpolar solvents bc they have similar structures
Don't conduct electricity well because they aren't composed of charges


Metallic properties

Almost all are solids
Have a metallic luster
Are malleable (can be hammered into sheets)
Are ductile (can be drawn into wires, can apply pressure to it and it won't break)
Have high thermal and electrical conductivity


Conclusions based on metallic properties

Exist as solids bc the atoms are in an ordered arrangement
Are malleable and ductile because of the mobility of the electrons
Conduct heat and electricity bc of the mobility of electrons (electrons aren't attracted to metal but around it, so they are more mobile)



The ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself



The unequal distribution of electrons


Electronegativity and bond type

The greater the Electronegativity difference in atoms, the more polar the bond


Electronegativity difference and bond type chart

2.0= ionic


Chemical bond

Attractive force that holds atoms together in compounds


Lewis structures

Diagram showing how valence electrons are arranged among the atoms in a molecule


Electron dot structure

Represent 1 atom
Shows valence electrons
Group #= valence electron for groups 1,2, 13, -18


Rules for Lewis structure

Hydrogen and halogens share a max of 2 electrons (form only single bonds, never in middle of things)
Group 14 elements share max of 8 electrons
Group 15 share a max of 6 electrons (tend to form three bonds)
Group 16 elements share a max of 4 electrons