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Whats a dihybrid

A cross involving 2 characteristics

1

Whats a mono hybrid

A cross involving 1 trait

2

Whats homozygous

Describes an organism with identical alleles for a trait

3

Whats a haploid

A cell that contains one set of chromosomes

4

Heredity

Biological inheritance

5

Whats genetics

The branch of biology that studies heredity

6

Whats heterozygous

Describes an organism with two different alleles for a trait

7

Phenotype

Physical appearance of an organism

8

Genotype

Genetic makeup of organisms, represented by TT or Tt or tt

9

Cross-pollination

The transfer of pollen grains from one plant to the pistil of a second plant

10

Self-pollination

The transfer of the male pollen grain (produced on the anther) to the female organ of the plant (pistil)

11

Incomplete dominance

One allele does not completely mask the other allele resulting in an intermediate phenotype

12

Codominance

Both alleles for a gene are expressed in a heterozygous phenotype

13

Complete dominance

The dominant allele completely masks the effect of the recessive allele when heterozygous

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Homozygous allele example

TT

15

Heterozygous allele ex

Tt

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Phenotype ex

8 spotted
8 not spotted

75% brown
25% blue

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Genotype ex

8 TT
8 Tt

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Dominant ex

T is dominant, Tt

19

Recessive ex

t is recessive, tt

20

Want goes on the outside of a punnet square

The parent genotypes

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What goes inside the punnet square

The possible offspring genotypes

22

How do you represent dominant traits, recessive?

Capital letters, lower case letters

23

Name Mendels three laws and describe

1. Law of dominance - some forms of a gene are expressed if present (meaning they are dominant) other forms of a gene are expressed only if there is no dominant allele present (meaning they are recessive)
2. Law of segregation- the pair of alleles for each trait are separated during the formation of reproductive cells in meiosis
3. Law of independent assortment- genes for different traits may sort independently of each other

24

Who was Gregor Mendel

Austrian monk, worked with garden peas, lived in the mid 1800s, established the Fundamental Laws of Modern Genetics, called the Father of Modern Genetics

25

What are purebred plants, how do you make them

Plants that self pollinate, who receive all their traits from a single parent, they produce offspring identical to themselves

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Mendel found that each parent contributes a gene for each trait to its offspring, what do we call the gene pairs

Alleles

27

What are hybrids, how are they produced

Organisms produced by crossing parents with differing characteristics (crossed purebreds make them)

28

Know how to do

Mono hybrid punnet squares

29

Know how to do

Dihybrid punnet squares