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Flashcards in Chemistry Deck (96):
1

What is it called when a molecule loses an electron

Oxidation

2

What is it called when a molecule gains an electron

Reduction

3

What is it called when a molecule gains an inorganic phosphate

Phosphorlyation

4

What does a kinase do

Transfers a phosphate group from one molecule to another

5

What does a ligase do

Joins two molecules together

6

What does a transferase do

Transfers the functional group from one molecule to another

7

What is hydrolysis

Addition of water to a molecule

8

What component of a chemical reaction is proportional to the Vmax

Enzyme concentration

9

What is the required substrate concentration to achieve 1/2 Vmax

Kmax, (michaelis-menten constant)

10

What type of enzyme inhibitor binds to the active site of an enzyme

Competitive

11

What type of enzyme inhibitor reduces Vmax and doens't bind to the active site

Non-competitive

12

What type of enzyme regulator binds to the allosteric site

Allosteric regulator

13

What kind of bone is formed between a fatty acid and a glycerol

Ester

14

What kind of bond forms between two sugars

Glycosidic

15

What is the rate limiting step in glycolosis

PFK

16

What is the rate limiting step in gluconeogenesis

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate

17

What is the rate limiting step in TCA

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

18

what is the rate limiting step in glycogen synthesis

GLycogen synthase

19

What is the rate limiting step in glycogenolysis

glycogen phosphorylase

20

What is the rate limiting step in HMP shunt

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

21

What is the rate limiting step in the urea cycle

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase

22

What is the rate limiting step in fatty acid synthesis

Acetyl-CoA- carboxylase

23

What is the rate limiting step in fatty acid oxidation

Carnitine acyltransferase

24

What is the rate limiting step in Cholesterol synthesis

HMG-CoA reductase

25

What is Sucrose made up of

Glucose and fructose

26

What is lactose made up of

Galactose and glucose

27

What is maltose made up of

Glucose + glucose

28

Why can we not digest cellulose

it has beta 1,4 bonds.

we can digest alpha 1,4 bonds and 1,6 bonds

29

What enzyme cleaves alpha 1,4 bonds

Pancreatic amylase

30

What is the main fuel for the brain

Glucose


can use keytones if it has to

31

What cells have GLUT-1 transporter

Brain
RBC
Placenta
Testis

32

What cells have GLUT-2 transporters

Liver
Kidney
Beta cells (pancreas)

33

What cells have GLUT-3 transporters

neruons

34

What cells have GLUT-4 transporters

Muscles
Adipose cells

35

Can glycolosis take place in the absence of oxygen

yes

36

where does glycolosis occur

cytosol

37

What enzyme of glycolosis traps glucose in the liver

Hexokinase

38

What inhibits glucokinase

fructose-6-phosphate

39

What is the final regulating enzyme of glycolosis

Pyruvate kinase

40

What is the alcohol counterpart of glucose that is made as an alternative way of dealing with excess glucose

Sorbitol

41

What is the danger associated with sorbitol

Can damage the renta, lens and schwann cells

Cataracts
retinopathy
peripheral neuropathy

42

What pathway synthesizes glucose

Gluconeogenesis

43

What is the purpose of gluconeogenesis

Maintain blood glucose in the fasted state by reversing glycolosis

44

Where does gluconeogenesis take place

the cytosol of the liver (first step is in the mitochondria)

45

What is used to make pyruvate during gluconeogenesis

Lactate
Alanine

46

how much ATP does gluconeogenesis use

6 ATP

47

What coenzyme is essential for gluconeogenesis to occur

Biotin

48

Does the krebs cycle occur in aerobic or anaerobic conditions

aerobic

49

What is the main molecule in the krebs cycle

Acetyl-CoA

50

What is produced from the krebs cycle

3 NADH
2 CO2
1 FADH2
1 GTP

51

In the ETC, NADH gets converted into how many ATP

3

52

In the ETC, FADH2 gets converted into how many ATP

2

53

Does the Krebs cycle produce ATP

No, it makes molecules that can turn into ATP through the ETC

54

How can oxaloacetate cross from the cytosol into the mitochondria

Has to be turned into malate

55

How can oxaloacetate cross from the mitochondria into the cytosol

Has to be turned into aspartate

56

What cycle helps to prevent lactic acid build up in muscles

Cori cycle

57

What pathway is CoQ-10 foud in

ETC

58

How much energy does the Cori cycle use up

4 ATP

59

What is the process of the Cori cycle

Turn Lactic acid into pyruvate, transfer it from muscle to liver. Live turns pyruvate into glucose and transports it back into the muscle

60

What is the purpose of the pentose phosphate pathway

produce NADPH

61

What is NADPH used for

Fatty acid oxidation
Detoxification
protection from free radicals

62

Where does the pentose phosphate pathway take place

In the cytosol

63

Is there a gain or a loss of ATP from the pentose phosphate pathway

no

64

Where is the majority of glycogen stored

Liver
****Muscles****

65

What is the advantage of having lots of reducing ends in glycogen

Increase synthesis rate
increase degradation rate
increase solubility

66

What does VLDL do

Transports fat from Liver to tissues

67

What do Chylomicrons do

Transport dietary lipids from SI to other locations in the body

68

What is LDL

Bad cholesterol, trans form

69

What is HDL

Good cholesterol, Cis form

70

DO saturated fats have double bonds

no

71

What types of fats are Omega-3 and Omega-6

Unsaturated

72

Where are fatty acids broken down

Mitochondria of adipocytes

73

What are the 4 steps of beta oxidation

Reduction (FAD)
Hydration
reduction (NAD)
cleavage

74

Where does keytone body synthesis occur

Mitochondria of hepatocytes

75

What molecule is formed when two acetyl CoA enzymes condense

Acetoacetyl CoA

76

During Keytone synthesis what is HMG CoA turned into

Acetyl CoA
acetoacetate

77

Acetoacetate during keytone synthesis is broken down into acetate and acetyl CoA. Which of those two substances can be smelt on the breath of a diabetic

Acetate (smells fruity)

78

What causes the body to undergo keytone synthesis

Rapid B-oxidation due to starvation or fasting
When fatty acid concentration is high in the blood

79

What is the process of building up fatty acids

Lipogenesis

80

Once glycogen stores are full what does glucose get turned into

Acetyl CoA --> Malonyl CoA --> Fatty Acids

81

Where in the body does fatty acid synthesis take place

Cytosol of the liver, adipose, kidney

82

Cholesterol produces what type of hormone

Steroid hormone

83

What does HMG CoA reductase do in steroid hormone synthesis

Convert HMG CoA into Mevalonic acid

84

Where is Acetyl CoA converted into Cholesterol

The liver

85

What drugs lower cholesterol levels in blood

Statins

86

What steroid hormone is estrogen derived from

testosterone

87

What steroid hormone is testosterone derived from

Androstenedione

88

What amino acid is a derivative of Serotonin and Melatonin

Tryptophan

89

What amino acid is a derivative of creatinine and Nitric Ozide

Arginine

90

What amino acids are derived from intermediates of glycolosis

Glycine
Alanine
Serine
Cysteine

91

What amino acid is derived from oxaloacetate

Aspartate

92

What amino acid is derived from aspartate

Asparagine

93

What amino acids are derived from glutamate

Glutamine
Proline
Arginine

94

What structure of proteins are alpha helix and beta sheets a part of

Secondary structure

95

What structure of proteins contole the basic function of proteins

Tertiary structure

96

What protein structure is the spatial arragement of subunits

Quaternary structure