Spinal Anatomy + CNS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Spinal Anatomy + CNS Deck (138):
1

What embryological layer does the Vertebral column develop from

Mesoderm

2

Does C7 have a bifid or non bifid spinous process

Non-bifid

3

What direction do the superior cervical facets face

Back
Up
Medial

4

What plane are the superior cervical facets

Horizontal

5

What direction do the superior facets of the thoracics face

Back
Up
Lateral

6

What plane are the superior thoracic facets in

Coronal plane

7

What direction do the superior lumbar facets face

Back
Medial

8

What plane are the superior lumbar facets in

Saggital

9

Which ligament of the vertebral column prevents hyperextension

ALL

10

After C2 what does the PLL continue uppwards as

The tectorial membrane

11

What is the job of the PLL

prevent hyperflexion

12

After C7 what does the supraspinous ligament continue uppwards as

Nuchal ligament

13

What is the job of the supraspinous/ nuchal ligament

Prevent hyperflexion

14

What is the job of the interspinous ligament

prevent anterior translation

15

What ligament of the vertebral column prevent buckling in extension

Ligamentum flavum

16

What vertebral ligament limits lateral bending

Intertransverse ligament

17

What does the alar ligament limit

Lateral bending

18

What does the apical ligament limit

Flexion and extension of C2

19

What does the cruciate ligament do

limits lateral translation

20

In what region of the vertebral column is the IVD the thickest, what region is it the thinnest

Thick = Lumbar
Thin = Thoracic

21

How many IVD are there in the adult human

23

22

What innervates the posterior outter third of the IVD

Sinuvertebral nerve

23

What innervates the Lateral outter third of the IVD

Gray sympathetic rami communican

24

How does the IVD get nourisment

Diffusion

25

Where is the spinal cannal the smallest, and where is it the largest

Smallest = Thoracics
Largest = cervicals

26

What vertebral level is the spinal cord the widest

C6

27

What motion do thoracic facets allow

Rotation

28

What motion is restricted in the lumbar spine

Lateral bending

29

Where does the majority of cervical rotation come from

C1-C2

30

What does the majority of flexion and extension of the cervical spine come from

Occiput - C1

31

How would you describe the cervical facet joint capsule

Long and loose

32

What innervates the facet joints

Medial branches of the dorsal rami of each segment

33

what motion is allowed in the upper 6 costovertebral joints

Pump handle action

34

What motion is allowed in the upper 6 costotransverse joints

Rotation

35

What motion is allowed in the lower 6 costovertebral joitns

Bucket handle action

36

What motion is allowed in the lower 6 costotransverse joints

Gliding

37

What are the 3 parallel groups of erector spinae mucles

Iliocostalis (I)
longissimus (love)
Spinalis (spinal)

38

What is special about the multifidus muscle

It is loaded with mechanoreceptors

39

What is the purpose of the intertransversarii and interspinales muscles

Mechanoreception (lots of spindle fibers)

40

What embryological structure is the spinal cord derived from

Neural tube (Ectoderm)

41

What vertebral level does the dural sac end

S2

42

What part of the dural sac becomes part of the coccygeal ligament

Filum terminale externa

43

What two layers of the dural sac continue with spinal nerves as the pass through the IVF

Dura
Arachnoid matter

44

Proprioceptive, vibration, fine touch fibers of the upper limb synapse in what ascending tract

Gracilis

45

Proprioceptive, vibration, fine touch fibers of the lower limb synapse in what ascending tract

Cuneatus

46

What type of information is carried in the spinothelamic tract

Pain
Temperature
crude touch

47

What descending tract does not carry motor information

Raphespinal tract

48

Which ascending spinal tract does not cross at all

Dorsal spinocerebellar

49

Which ascending spinal tract crosses twice

Ventral spinocerebellar

50

Where dose the tract gracilis and cuneatus cross

Medulla

51

Which descending tracts do not cross

Vestibulospinal tract
Raphespinal tract

52

Which descending tracts deal with voluntary movement

Lateral Corticospinal tract (limbs)
Ventral corticospinal tract (head,neck)

53

Which descending tract excites flexors and inhibits extensors

Rubrospinal tract

54

Which descending tract excites extensors

Vestibulospinal

55

Which descending tract is involved in turning the head in response to sound or light

Tectospinal

56

Which descending tract restricts voluntary movement

Rubrospinal tract

57

Which descending tract is inhibits nociception with serotonin

Raphespinal

58

which horn of the spinal cord is sensory

Dorsal

59

Which horn of the spinal cord is motor

Ventral

60

Which horn of the spinal cord is Sympathetic

Lateral

61

Which lamina of the spinal cord is also known as the substantia gelatinosa

Lamina II

62

Which lamina of the spinal cord is also known as the nucleus porprius

Lamina III
Lamina IV

63

Which lamina contains Clarkes nucleus

Lamina VII

64

Which lamina is known as the grey commissure

Lamina X

65

What artery supplies the lower 1/2 of the spinal cord (arises on the left)

Great Radicular artery of adamkiewicz

66

What artery supplies the anterior two thirds of the spinal cord

Single anterior spinal artery

67

What artery supplies the posterior one-third of the spinal cord

Two posterior spinal arteries

68

What are signs of an upper motor neuron lesion

Hyperreflexia
Spastic muscles
Positive babinski sign

69

What are signs of a lower motor neuron lesion

Hyporeflexia
Flacid muscles
Atrophy
Negative babinski sign

70

What are the three brain vesicles

Prosencephalon
Mesencephalon
Rhombencephalon

71

What gives rise to the cerebral hemispheres

telecephalon (prosencephalon)

72

What gives rise to the thalamus, epithalamus and subthalamic nuclei

Diencephalon (prosencephalon)

73

What gives rise to the midbrain

Mesencephalon

74

What gives rise to the pons and cerebellum

Metencephalon (rhombencephalon)

75

What gives rise to the medulla and 4th ventricle

Myelencephalon (rhombencephalon)

76

What are the connective cells in the CNS

Astrocytes
Ependymal cells
Oligodendrocytes + Schwann cells

77

What cells make CSF

Ependymal cells

78

What cells help form the blood brian barrier

Astrocytes

79

What cells produce myelin

Oligodendrocytes (CNS)
Schwann cells (PNS)

80

What fibers connect areas of the brain in the same hemisphere

Assoication fibers

81

What fiber connect areas on either side of the brain or spinal cord

Commissural fibers

82

What fibers connect the brain to spinal cord

Projection fibers

83

Is the middle cerebral artery a part of the circle of willis

no

84

What vessel of the circle of willis is the terminal branch of the basilar arery

Posterior Cerebral artery

85

What vessel of the circle of willis is the terminal end of the internal carotid artery

Posterior communication artery

86

What artery supplies the medulla

Vertebral artery

87

What artery supplies the pons

Basilar artery

88

What regulates blood supply to the brain

CO2, high levels cause vasodilation

89

What artery supplies the medial aspect of the cerebral hemispheres

Anterior cerebral artery

90

What artery supplies the occipital lobe, midbran, and thalamus

Posterior cerebral artery

91

What artery supplies the upper temporal lobe

middle cerebral artery

92

Where are the bipolar neurons of CN I located

Olfactory mucosa

93

Where is the olfactory cortex located

Temporal lobe

94

What part of the brain links smells with the autonomic NS

Hypothalamus

95

What part of the brain links smells with emotions

Limbic system

96

Where is the primary visual cortex

Brodman area 17 (Occipital lobe)

97

Does the optic nerve send information to the lateral or medial geniculate body

Lateral geniculate body

98

What nuclei receives parasympathetic fibers from the occulomotor nerve (CN III). What does it do

Ciliary ganglion

Constriction of pupil

99

What CN is the only one that exits the brain dorsally

CN IV (Trochlear nerve)

100

What muscles is innervated by the trochlear nerve

Superior oblique

101

What muscle is innervated by the abducens (CN VI) nerve

Lateral rectus

102

What are the three branches of the Trigeminal nerve (CN V)

Opthalmic
Maxillary
Mandibular

103

Where does the Opthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve exit the skull

Superior orbital fissure

104

Where does the Maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve exit the skull

Foramen rotundum

105

Where does the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve exit the skull

Foramen ovale

106

What are the branches of the opthalmic division trigeminal

Lacrimal
Ethmoid
Frontal
Trochlear

107

What are the branches of the maxillary division trigeminal

Pharyngeal
Infraorbital
Nasopalatine
Zygomatic

108

where does the pterygopalatine gangion receive parasympathetic fibers from

Superior salivary nucleus

109

Where does the otic ganglion receive parasympathetic fibers from

Inferior salivary nucleus

110

Where does the submandibular ganglion receive parasympathetic fibers from

Superior salivary nucleus

111

Where does the Facial nerve (CN VII) leave the brain

Pontomedullary angle

112

Where does the facial nerve (CN VII) receive parasympathetic fibers from

superior salivary nucleus

113

What nucleus of the facial nevre (CN VII) deals with taste

Solitary tract nucleus

114

What are the branches of the facial nerve (CN VII)

Temporal
Zygomatic
Buccal
Marginal mandibular
Cervical

115

What CN gives sweet and salty sensation from the tongue

CN VII (facial)

116

What CN gives bitter sensation from the tongue

CN IX (Glossopharyngeal nerve)

117

What are the two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII)

Cochlear (hearing)
Vestibular (balance

118

Which geniculate body does the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII)send cochlear fiber to

Medial genicualte

119

What do the semicircular canals sence

Angular acceleration

120

What does the urticle sense

Linear acceleration in horizontal plane

121

What does the saccule sense

Linear acceleration in vertical plane

122

What muscle does the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) supply

Stylopharyngeous

123

What gives taste to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue

Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)

124

What CN innvervates the parotid gland

Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)

125

What CN innvervates the carotid body and sinue

Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)

126

What CN gives taste to the base of the tongue

CN X (vagus)

127

Where does the vagus leave the skull

Jugular foramen

128

Does the vagus carry mainly afferent or efferent fibers

mainly afferent

129

What are the two parts of the spinal accessory nerve (CN XI)

Cranial
Spinal

130

What nerve does the cranial portion of CN XI (spinal accessory) join up with to supply the palat, pharynx and larynx

Vagus nerve

131

Where does the spinal accessory nerve leave the skull

Jugular forament

132

Where does the spinal portion of the spinal accessory nerve enter the skull (just before joining the cranial portion)

Foramen magnum

133

What CN supplies all intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus

Hypoglossal (CN XII)

134

What nerve supplies the palatoglossus

Pharyngeal plexus of the vagus (CN X)

135

Where does the hypoglossal nerve exit the skull

Hypoglossal foramen

136

Which of the following cranial nerves is not found in the pons
A) CN IV (Trochlear)
B) CN VII (Facial)
C) CN V (Trigeminal)
D) CN VI (Abducens)

A) CN IV (Trochlear)

137

Where does the facial nerve (CN VII) enter the skull

Internal acoustic meatus

138

Where does the facial nerve (CN VII) exit the skull

Stylomastoid foramen