Chronic inflammation II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chronic inflammation II Deck (17):
1

What are characteristics of granulomatous inflammation?

Aggregates of activated macrophages having a squamous cell-like (epithelioid) appearance

2

When is granulomatous inflammation most frequently seen?

In response to a cellular attempt to contain an offending agent that is difficult to eradicate, such as indigestible substances

3

What is a granuloma?

A focal area of granulomatous inflammation consisting of a microscopic aggregation of macrophages that are transformed into epithelioid cells, surrounded by a collar of mononuclear leukocytes (lymphocytes and plasma cells)

4

What is granulation tissue?

Histologically, a proliferation of fibroblasts and new, thin-walled delicate capillaries in a loose ECM

5

What is the physiological basis of fever?

Cytokines stimulate PG synthesis in hypothalamic thermoregulatory center to reset the body temperature set point

6

Acute phase response is activated in response to what chemicals?

Exogenous (LPS) and endogenous (IL-1, TNFa) pyrogens

7

What are the roles of IL-1 and TNFa in the acute phase response?

Increase COX to convert AA into PG

8

What are the important acute phase proteins?

CRP, fibrinogen, serum amyloid A

9

Which cytokines upregulate the acute phase proteins?

IL-1, IL-6, TNFa

10

What are the functions of acute phase proteins?

Bind to microbial wall, opsonize and fix complement to promote bacterial clearance

11

What is the WBC count for leukocytosis?

15k - 20k

12

What is the WBC count for leukemoid reaction?

40k - 100k

13

Definition: neutrophilia

Increase in absolute number of neutrophils seen in most bacterial infections

14

Definition: lymphocytosis

Increase in absolute number of lymphocytes, seen mostly in viral infections such as mononucleosis, mumps, German measles

15

Definition: eosinophilia

Increase in absolute number of eosinophils, seen in asthma, hay fever, parasitic infections

16

Definition: leukopenia

Decrease in absolute number of WBCs, seen in certain infections (viral, typhoid fever), also seen in debilitated hosts or overwhelming infection

17

What is the triad for septic shock?

DIC, hypoglycemia, CV failure