Flashcards in Neoplasia VI Deck (29)
what repair pathway is responsible for UV damage?
nucleotide excision repair pathway
what is the pathogenesis of hep B hepatocellular CA?
encodes regulatory protein HBx - activates growth promoting genes IGFs and binds / inhibits p53
EBV is associated with what types of cancer?
burkitt lymphoma, hodgkin lymphoma, B cell lymphoma, nasopharyngeal CA
which subtypes of HPV are associated with cancer?
1. high risk - 16, 18, 31 2. benign - 6, 11
what is the pathogenesis of HTLV-1?
1. CD4 tropism 2. Tax gene stimulates transcription of viral mRNA, IL-2 (T cell growth factor)
how is H. pylori associated with gastric lymphoma and gastric CA?
CagA stimulates growth factor pathway
definition: paraneoplastic syndromes
distant effects of a tumor unrelated to primary tumor or metastasis
acnathosis nigricans is associated with what type of cancer?
what skin lesions are associated with stomach CA?
1. acnathosis nigricans 2. Leser-Trelat sign (multiple outcroppings of pigmented seborrheic keratosis)
carcinoid syndrome is associated with what type of tumor?
neuroendocrine tumors in the appendix or small intestine
what do neuroendocrine tumors produce in carcinoid syndrome?
what are the clinical features of carcinoid syndrome?
flushing, tachycardia, diarrhea, bronchospasm
what is the diagnosis for carcinoid syndrome?
urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (serotonin metabolite)
what are causes for hypercalcemia in malignancy?
squamous cell CA of lung, renal cell CA, osteolytic bony metastasis, breast cancer
what cancer is associated with hypocalcemia? hormone responsible?
1. medullary CA of thyroid 2. calcitonin
what cancer is associated with gynecomastia? hormone responsible?
1. chorioCA testis 2. B-HCG
what cancer is associated with eaton lambert syndrome?
1. small cell CA of lung 2. myasthenia gravis like syndrome
when is IHC indicated in the diagnosis of a tumor?
1. if origin is unknown 2. categorization of a leukemia 3. site of origin of a metastasis
what is the tumor marker for epithelial origin?
cytokeratin, keratin, or epithelial membrane antigen (EMA)
what are the tumor markers for mesenchymal origin?
1. vimentin 2. desmin - specific to muscle
what is the tumor marker for leukocyte origin?
LCA - leukocyte common antigen
what are the tumor markers for neuronal origin?
1. neuron-specific enolase 2. chromogranin 3. synaptophysin
what are the tumor markers for thyroid cancer? ALL? seminoma? vascular neoplasms?
1. thyroglobulin 2. CD10 (CALLA) 3. placental alkaline phosphatase 4. vWF, CD31
what is the tumor marker for ovarian CA?
what is the tumor marker for hepatocellular CA and germ cell tumors of testes or ovary?
AFP (alpha fetoprotein)
what is the tumor marker for small cell CA of the lung?
what is the tumor marker for medullary thyroid CA?
what is the tumor marker for colon cancer, pancreatic cancer?