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Flashcards in Class 2 Deck (27)
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1

Define demographics

Demos = people
Graphein = to write

People in your neighborhood

2

Major demographic factors in society

Age
Immigration status
Gender
Sexual orientation
Race and ethnicity

3

Two Major theories of demographic change

Malthusian theory
Demographic transition theory

4

Malthusian theory

Hypothesized that unchecked population growth would quickly exceed carrying capacity leading to overpopulation and catastrophes such as famine or war known as Malthusian catastrophe

5

Demographic transition theory

Societies transition from high birth and high death rates to low birth and low death rates

Pre-industrial stage = high birth rates and high death rates

industrial revolution = high birth rates but death rates fall, leading to population growth

Post industrial stage = low birth rates and low death rates; population stabilizes

6

Four stages of demographic transition model

Stage 1 Expanding

Stage 2 Expanding

Stage 3 Stationary

Stage 4 Contracting

7

Gender identity

The extent to which one identified with a particular gender

Gender identity is often shaped early in life through social interactions

8

Sexual orientation

Is a social construct that exists along a continuum with the extremes being exclusive attractions to the opposite gender or sex and exclusive attraction to the same gender or sex

The Kinsey Scale
- based on who has been in your bed
- who you have actually been with sexually

9

Define Race

Dividing people into populations or groups on the basis of various sets of PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

10

Define ethnicity

A population group whose members identify with each other on the basis of COMMON NATIONALITY or SHARED CULTURAL TRADITIONS

11

What is the genealogy of race

Racial

12

Define residential segregation

Physical separation of groups into different areas, typically along the lines of race ethnicity or socioeconomic status

13

Environmental injustice

If you are born into a minority group of low SES then you tend to live in areas where environmental hazards and toxins are disproportionally high

14

Define food desert

An area typically in highly ..

15

Prejudice vs discrimination

Involved preconceived judgements toward people based on their group membership

Prejudice is a BELIEF and not a behaviour

Prejudice may lead to discrimination but discrimination is biased treatment of an individual based on group membership: ACTION

16

Social segregation

Tendency of people from the same social groups to interact with each other and have minimal contact with individuals from other social groups

17

Educational segregation

Poor schools vs rich schools

18

Socioeconomic Status

The social standing or class of an individual or group
It is often measured as a combination of education, income and occupation

19

Socioeconomic And the 3Ps

Power = the ability to enforce ones will on other people

Property = possessions, income and other wealth

Prestige = ones reputation and standing in society

20

What is the difference between absolute poverty and relative poverty

Absolute poverty = can’t afford food water shelter

Relative poverty = inability to meet the average standard of living by a given society

21

Life expectancy

The number of years from birth an individual is expected to live on average

22

Social stratification
3 types of stratification

Within society we have layers or levels

3 types:
Caste System
Class System
Meritocracy

23

Caste system

Rigid

Lower social mobility
Less dependent on effort
Social status defined by birth

24

Meritocracy

The people who “deserve it” will rule
- smart and work hard you are in the upper classes

Lots of social mobility
More dependent on effort
Social status based on individual merit

25

Class system

Some degree of social mobility
Social status determined by birth and individual merit

26

Social reproduction

Occurs when social inequality is transmitted from one generation to the next

27

What determines your social mobility

Physical capital
- money property land and other physical assets

Social Capital
- whom you know, social networks

Cultural Capital
- non-financial attributes evaluated by society