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Flashcards in Research methods Deck (66)
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1

Explain experimental design

Causes
1) select population
2) operationalize the independent and dependent variables
3) carefully select control and experimental groups
4) randomly sample from the population
5) randomly assign individuals to groups
6) measure the results
7) test hypothesis

2

Independent variable

The variable manipulated by the research ream

3

Dependent variable

The variable that is measured

4

Operational definition

A specification of precisely what they mean by each variable

5

Experimental Group

The group of participants that received treatment

6

Control Group

Acts as a point of reference and comparison

Control group must be homogenous to the experimental group

7

Extraneous/Confounding Variables

Variables other then the treatment that could potentially explain an experimental result

8

Placebo effect

Just believing that treatment is being administered can lead to a measurable result

9

Double bind

Neither the person administering treatment nor the participants truly know if they are assigned to the treatment or control groups

10

Sampling Bias

If it is not equally likely for all members of a population to be sampled

11

Selection Bias

More general category of systemic flaws in a design that can compromise results

Purposely selecting which studies to evaluate in a meta analysis

12

Meta analysis

Big picture analysis of many studies to look for trends in the data

13

Attrition

Participants dropping out of the study

If the reason that participants are dropping out is non-random this might introduce an extraneous variable

14

Randomized block technique

Researchers evaluate where participants fall along the variables they wish to equalize across experimental and control groups

They randomly assign individuals from these groups so that the treatment and control groups are similar along the variables of interest

15

Reliability

Produce stable and consistent results, measure what they’re suppose to and repeated measurements lead to similar results

16

Construct validity

Measure what they are supposed to

17

Replicability

Repeated measurements lead to similar results

18

Psychometrics

Study of how to measure psychological variables through testing

19

Response bias

The tendency for respondents to not have perfect insight into their state and provide inaccurate responses

20

Between subjects design

The comparisons are made between subjects from one group to another

21

Within subject design

Compare the same group at different points in time

22

Mixed methods research

Use both between subjects and within subjects design techniques and or mix up qualitative and quantitative

23

Type 2 vs Type 1 errors

It is better to incorrectly conclude that there is no effect
- type 2 error
- false negative

Then it is to falsely suppose the veracity of a result that does not actually exist
- type 1 error
- false positive

24

Null Hypothesis

Assume that there is no causal relationship between the variables and any effect that is measured if there is on is due to chance

Then using evidence from the experiment to determine that the null hypothesis is true or false

25

Experimental hypothesis

The proposition that variations in the independent variable cause changes in the dependent variables

26

Significant difference

A measured difference between two groups that Is large enough that’s it is probably not due to chance

27

P-Value

A number from 0-1 that represents the probability that a difference observed in an experiment is due to chance

Lower value means stronger relationship

28

What is the usual minimum number of participants to use in order to accurately calculate the significant differences

30 or more
Larger the better

29

External validity

Flaw or limitation when applying the conclusion to the real world can lead to a flaw in external validity

30

Internal validity

Limitation of the study that the experiment is not well done leaving doubts about the conclusion because of some inherent flaw in the design

High when confounding variables have been considered and minimized and the casual relationship between the independent and dependent variable can be established by the way the experiment was set up