Flashcards in Research methods Deck (66)

Loading flashcards...

1

## Explain experimental design

###
Causes

1) select population

2) operationalize the independent and dependent variables

3) carefully select control and experimental groups

4) randomly sample from the population

5) randomly assign individuals to groups

6) measure the results

7) test hypothesis

2

## Independent variable

### The variable manipulated by the research ream

3

## Dependent variable

### The variable that is measured

4

## Operational definition

### A specification of precisely what they mean by each variable

5

## Experimental Group

### The group of participants that received treatment

6

## Control Group

###
Acts as a point of reference and comparison

Control group must be homogenous to the experimental group

7

## Extraneous/Confounding Variables

### Variables other then the treatment that could potentially explain an experimental result

8

## Placebo effect

### Just believing that treatment is being administered can lead to a measurable result

9

## Double bind

### Neither the person administering treatment nor the participants truly know if they are assigned to the treatment or control groups

10

## Sampling Bias

### If it is not equally likely for all members of a population to be sampled

11

## Selection Bias

###
More general category of systemic flaws in a design that can compromise results

Purposely selecting which studies to evaluate in a meta analysis

12

## Meta analysis

### Big picture analysis of many studies to look for trends in the data

13

## Attrition

###
Participants dropping out of the study

If the reason that participants are dropping out is non-random this might introduce an extraneous variable

14

## Randomized block technique

###
Researchers evaluate where participants fall along the variables they wish to equalize across experimental and control groups

They randomly assign individuals from these groups so that the treatment and control groups are similar along the variables of interest

15

## Reliability

### Produce stable and consistent results, measure what they’re suppose to and repeated measurements lead to similar results

16

## Construct validity

### Measure what they are supposed to

17

## Replicability

### Repeated measurements lead to similar results

18

## Psychometrics

### Study of how to measure psychological variables through testing

19

## Response bias

### The tendency for respondents to not have perfect insight into their state and provide inaccurate responses

20

## Between subjects design

### The comparisons are made between subjects from one group to another

21

## Within subject design

### Compare the same group at different points in time

22

## Mixed methods research

### Use both between subjects and within subjects design techniques and or mix up qualitative and quantitative

23

## Type 2 vs Type 1 errors

###
It is better to incorrectly conclude that there is no effect

- type 2 error

- false negative

Then it is to falsely suppose the veracity of a result that does not actually exist

- type 1 error

- false positive

24

## Null Hypothesis

###
Assume that there is no causal relationship between the variables and any effect that is measured if there is on is due to chance

Then using evidence from the experiment to determine that the null hypothesis is true or false

25

## Experimental hypothesis

### The proposition that variations in the independent variable cause changes in the dependent variables

26

## Significant difference

### A measured difference between two groups that Is large enough that’s it is probably not due to chance

27

## P-Value

###
A number from 0-1 that represents the probability that a difference observed in an experiment is due to chance

Lower value means stronger relationship

28

## What is the usual minimum number of participants to use in order to accurately calculate the significant differences

###
30 or more

Larger the better

29

## External validity

### Flaw or limitation when applying the conclusion to the real world can lead to a flaw in external validity

30