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Flashcards in Class 4 Deck (24)
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1

Personality

Our thoughts feelings ways of thinking about things beliefs and behaviours it is a core component of who we consider ourselves to be

2

Perspectives on persoanlity

The life course perspective
The psychoanalytic perspective
The humanist perspective
The behaviourist perspective
The social cognitive perspective
The trait perspective
The biological perspective

3

Life course perspective of personality

A multidisciplinary approach developed to understand individual lives from a cultural social and structural perspective

Need to know
- family structure
- SES
- demographics
- disorder prevalence
- age and health
- major life events

4

Psychoanalytic theory
Freuds three components of the human psyche

ID
- largely unconscious and responsible for our desire to avoid pain and seek pleasure

EGO
- which is responsible for our logical thinking and planning as we deal with reality
- mediator

SUPEREGO
- which is responsible for our moral judgements of right and wrong and strives for perfection

5

Psychoanalytic perspective

Asserts that personality is shaped largely by the unconscious
Mental illness or neurosis is the result of unconscious conflicts which often stem from childhood
(Like listening for earthquakes; faults underneath)

6

What did Freud suggest human behaviour is motivated by

Libido
- life drive which drives behaviours focused on pleasure survival and avoidance of pain

Death Drive
- drives dangerous or destructive behaviours and underlies the desire to hurt oneself or others

7

Psychosexual stages of development

Oral
- age = 0-1
- erogenous zone (tasks) = mouth
- successful resolution = weaning
- fixation = Oral aggression or oral passivity (become a smoker or verbally abusive)

Anal
- age = 1-3
- erogenous zone (tasks) = Anus (bowel/bladder)
- successful resolution = toilet training
- fixation = Amal retention or anal expulsion

Phallic
- age = 3-6
- erogenous zone (tasks) = genitals presence or absence of penis; Oedipus complex (male) Electra complex (females)
- successful resolution = gender identification
- fixation = difficultly with intimate relationships

Latency
- age = 6-12
- erogenous zone (tasks) = n/a sexual feelings are dormant during this stage
- successful resolution = social interaction
- fixation = arrested development

Genital
- age = 12+
- erogenous zone (tasks) = other peoples genitals (reproduction and pleasure)
- successful resolution = intimate relationships
- fixation = fixation in prior stage could result in sexual and intimacy issues

8

Erik Erickson psychoanalytic

Built upon Freud psychoanalytic
Includes social and interpersonal factors
Added additional stages through adulthood

9

Eriksons stages

Trust vs mistrust
Autonomy vs shame
Initiative vs guilt
Industry vs inferiority
Identity vs role confusion
Intimacy vs isolation
Generativity vs stagnation
Integrity vs despair

10

Humanist perspective

Carl Rogers

Asserts that humans are driven by an actualizing tendency to realize their highest potential and personality conflicts arise when this is somehow thwarted

Progress from in undifferentiated to differentiates

Main goal of development is the differentiated self concept

Self actualization is accompanied when parents exhibit unconditional positive regard

Those raised with conditional positive regard will only feel worthy when they’ve met certain conditions

11

Behaviourist perspective

BF skinner

Personality is a result of interaction between the individual ...

12

Social cognitive perspective

Personality is a result of reciprocal interactions among behavioural cognitive, an environmental factors

Albert Bandura
- patterns of behaviour are learned not just through classical and operant conditioning but also through observational learning

- cognitive processes are involved in both observational learning and the development of beliefs about self efficacy

13

What is observational learning

Also called social learning

Learning occurs through modelling when we observe behaviour of another and learn to imitate it

14

Biological perspective of personality

Personality is the result of individual differences in brain biology

15

Trait perspective of personality

Personality is a result of traits which are habitual patterns of behaviour, thought, and emotion that are relatively stable over time

16

What is the five factor model

Openness
Conscientiousness
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Neuroticism

17

What are the three categories of traits in the trait theory of personality

Cardinal traits
- rare and develop later in life; they dominate an individuals whole life, often to the point that the person becomes known specifically for these traits

Central traits
- are general characteristics that form the basic foundations of personality and describe people across different situations

Secondary traits
- are sometimes related to attitudes or preferences. These characteristics are dependent on the situation

18

What psychologist is associated with trait theory of personality

Hans Eysenck

Also influential to the biological perspective

Personality traits are hierarchical, a few foundational traits giving rise to a large array of superficial traits

Genetic differences determine personality traits

Variations in extraversion and neuroticism give rise to personality types

19

What is motivation

The diving force that causes us to act or behave in certain ways

Instincts
- unlearned behaviours in fixed patterns through out a species

Drives
- urges originating from physiological discomfort such as hunger pangs or dry throat

Needs
- biological needs and higher level needs such as the need for love and belonging

Arousal
- restlessness boredom or curiosity may motivate behaviour even when other needs are met

20

What is the drive reduction theory

A physiological need creates an aroused state that drives an organism to address that need by engaging in some behaviour that will reduce the arousal

Psychologist = hull

21

Who is the psychologist that created the pyramid for motivation

Abraham Maslow

Self actualization
Esteem needs
Love and belonging
Safety needs
Physiological needs

22

What are the three components of emotion

Physiological or bodily

Cognitive or mental

Behavioural or action

23

Who are the three psychologists that created theories of emotion

James Lange
- physiological arousal causes emotion

Cannon-Bard
- emotion and physiological arousal happen simultaneously

Schachter-Singer
- emotion is determined by arousal and context (situation!)

24

What is Yerkes-Dodson law of emotion

There is an optimal level of emotional arousal for performance