Clinical Correlations of the Lower Limb Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Clinical Correlations of the Lower Limb Deck (108)
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1

femoral hernia

protrusion of viscus through femoral ring into femoral canal

more common in females

protrusion in femoral triangle inferolateral to pubic tubercle
-may protrude through the saphenous opening and impede venous return of greater saphenous vein**

unique location to palpate a bump

2

compartment syndrome of leg

infection, inflammation, or arterial hemorrhage within a fascial compartment of leg can produce pressure increases within compartment high enough to:

reduce blood supply to muscles
impinge nerves (paresthesias and paralysis)

severe cases require fasciotomy to relieve these compressive forces prior to occurence of tissue necrosis

3

groin strain

adductor group pulls up usually during fast hip flexion

4

hamstring strain

strains of semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris usually near the ischial tuberosity as a result of fast extension (push off in running)

5

ruptured achilles tendon

weekend warrior
-increased age and irregular exercise (rapid push offs of feet are required)

6

psoas abscess

due to retroperitoneal abdominal or pelvic infection that descends within psoas fascial sheath

descends deep to ingunial ligament resulting in pain and swelling within femoral triangle

can be mistaken for:
-femoral hernia, indirect inguinal hernia, inflammation of inguinal lymph nodes, saphenous varix

**inflammation of kidney - close to psoas

7

tibialis anterior strain

aka shin splints

microtears in periosteal attachments of distal 2/3 of tibialis anterior to tibia (sharpeys fibers)

resulting in pain

also swelling and inflammation within muscle decreases vascular exchange and leads to pain

usually from overuse or infequent bouts of exercise not preceded by stretching or warming up

running on hard surfaces after having trained on softer surface

8

calcaneal tendonitis

microtears in attachment of calcaneal tendon to calcaneal tuberosity as result of overuse, poor footwear or train surfaces

9

avulsion fractures

fragment being pulled away from bones by rapidly loading tendons

pelvis, tibial tuberosity, ankle, foot

10

pelvic avulsion fractures?

ischial tuberosity
ASIS
AIIS
ischiopubic rami

11

tibial tuberosity avulsion fractures?

osgood shlatter**

12

ankle avulsion fracture

lateral and medial malleloli

13

foot avulsion fracture

5th foot metatarsal

14

osgood schlatter

tibial tubercle apophyseal traction injury

avulsion of patellar ligament from tibial tuberosity

15

malleolar avulsion fraction

occurs during eversion

avulsed by deltoid ligament

16

avulsion of 5th metatarsal

fibularis brevis attachments pulls bone off

17

fracture of femur neck

increased compressive forces on an osteoporotic leg

shortened limb and require internal fixation

18

greater trochanter and shaft femur fracture

direct trauma to falls or vehicular accidents

19

distal femoral fractures

fractures of femoral condyles or between condyles

**salter harris classification

both result in aberration of articular surfaces of knee joint
may disrupt blood supply to knee or leg

20

patella fracture

transverse
-avulsion type due to sudden forceful contraction of quadriceps
-direct blow

21

salter harris classification

3 and 4 - give you instability
-dividing lateral and medial compartments

all threat to growth of bone if with epiphysis

22

bipartite or tripartite patella?

growth centers that didn't fuse correctly

often misinterpreted as fractures

23

most often fracture of tibia?

near junction of middle and distal third
-narrow and least vascularized

24

tibia fractures

subQ location - prone to compound fracture

25

fracture of tibia through nutrient foramen

can lead to non-union

26

fracture of medial malleolus?

excessive eversion

27

fibula fracture?

most common just proximal to lateral malleolus

often associated with fracture dislocations of ankle and distal tibial fractures

fracture of lateral malleolus due to contact with talus during excessive inversion

28

what is most likely for bone graft procedures

fibula (not weight bearing)

29

calcaneus fracture

most often fractures as a result of hard falls directly on heel

30

talus fractures

mot often fractures during forced dorsiflexion