Organization of the Lower Limb Flashcards Preview

MSS - MSK Exam 3 > Organization of the Lower Limb > Flashcards

Flashcards in Organization of the Lower Limb Deck (72):
1

lower limb joint?

acetabulum
-less mobility, more stability

2

capsule of hip joint?

limits extension and abduction

does little to inhibit flexion

3

what allows for actions of climbing and running?

modified hinge at knee and flexion at hip

4

fibula role?

little to add stability and strength
-mainly for muscle attachments

5

ankle allows?

hinge joint to jump and run coupled with muscles strong enough to elevate the entire body mass

6

multiple joints in feet allow?

spring needed for cushioned landing and for negotiating uneven surfaces

7

tela subcutanea

superficial fascia of lower limb

8

two layers of superficial fascia ?

fatty and membranous layer

9

whats between fatty and membranous layer?

inguinal lymph nodes
subQ blood vessels and nerves

10

deep fascia of lower limb?

stocking like investment

11

attachments of deep fascia?

above to most of the inferior aspect of bony pelvis and attached to bony prominences at knee and ankle

12

fascia lata

continuity of deep fascia
-most superior portion of deep fascia
-surrounds thigh and portion of gluteal region

13

gluteal aponeurosis

thickened portion of fascial lata
-extends inferiorly from posterior portion of iliac crest and forms an incomplete intermuscular septa between gluteus maximus and medius

14

what muscles is gluteal aponeurosis between?

gluteus maximus
gluteus medius

15

intramuscular septa

lateral and medial when part of fascia lata

inward projections of fascia lata which extend to femur and delineate muscular compartments

16

iliotibial tract

lateral thickening of fascia lata
-serves as tendon for tensor facia lata and gluteus maximus

attaches inferiorly to tibia, head of fibula and blends with capsule of knee joint

17

saphenous vein opening

circular opening in superior anteromedial portion of the fascia lata below the inguinal ligament

-transmits the great saphenous vein

18

falciform margin

sickle shaped and part of saphenous vein opening

underlain with fascia cribrosa

19

crural fascia

extension of fascia lata below knee

20

intermuscular septa

anterior and posterior (when part of crural fascia)
-attach as inward extensions of crural fascia to fibula

-delineate anterior and lateral crural compartments

transverse
-attaches between tibia and fibula posteriorly
-delineate superior and deep posterior compartments

21

retinacula

thickening of crural fascia at ankle which prevents tendons from bowstringing

-superior and inferior extensor retinacula (anterior)
-superior and inferior fibular retinacula (lateral)
-flexor retinacula - posteromedial

22

fascia of dorsum of foot?

continous with extensor retinacula

23

plantar fascia

continuation of fascia of dorsum of foot onto the sole
thickened central portion - plantar aponeurosis

24

plantar aponeurosis

thickened central portion of plantar fascia

25

anterior femoral compartment

quads and sartorious
-flex thigh and/or extend leg

26

artery and nerve in anterior femoral compartment?

femoral artery and nerve

27

femoral triangle

transitional space between abdominopelvic region and the lower limb

bounded by inguinal ligament, sartorious, adductor longus muscles, and covered by fascia lata

28

contents of femoral triangle?

femoral vein, artery, nerve, and deep inguinal lymph nodes

29

medial femoral compartment?

muscles within this compartment flex, adduct, and rotate the thigh

branches of obturator artery and nerve distribute within this compartment

30

adductor canal

canal connecting femoral triangle with popliteal fossa

-bounded by adductor musculature, vastus medialis, and sartorious

31

contents of adductor canal?

femoral artery and vein, saphenous vein and nerve to vastus medialis

32

gluteal compartment

subdivided into superficial and deep compartments

33

superficial compartment of gluteal?

muscles which mimic deltoid
-abduct, flex, and medially rotates, extends and laterally rotates the thigh

34

deep compartment of gluteal?

muscles that abduct and laterally rotate thigh

35

innervation of gluteal compartment?

branches of superior and inferior gluteal arterie and nerves

36

sciatic nerve

passes between these compartments to gain posterior thigh

37

posterior femoral compartment

muscles are hamstrings
-flex leg and extend thigh

-branches of deep femoral artery and vein

sciatic nerve traverses entire length of this compartment and provides innervation to all musculature

38

popliteal fossa

area posterior of knee

transitional zone and pathway for structures passing from thigh into leg

39

bounds of popliteal fossa

semimembranosus
semitendinosus
biceps femoris
gastrocnemius
covered by fascia lata

40

contents of popliteal fossa

popliteal artery and branches
popliteal vein and tributaries
bifurcation of sciatic nerve into common fibular and tibial branches

41

posterior crural compartment

superficial and deep compartments

superficial - gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris
-flex leg and plantar flex foot

deep - muscles that plantar flex and invert foot

42

innervation of posterior crural compartment?

tibial nerve and posterior tibial artery distribute

43

lateral crural compartment?

contains muscles which plantar flex and evert foot

-branches of superficial fibular nerve and fibular artery distribute here

44

anterior crural compartment and dorsum of foot

muscles that dorsi flex and invert foot, extend toes and assist in eversion of foot

deep fibular nerve and anterior tibial artery distribute here

45

plantar foot

4 compartments
-medial
-lateral
-central
-interosseous

46

hallux

great toe

47

digiti minimi

small toe

48

posterior tibial artery

bifurcates to lateral and medial plantar artery
-distributes to plantar foot compartments

49

tibial nerve

bifurcates and forms lateral and medial plantar nerves

share innervation of plantar foot compartments

50

lower limb artery?

femoral

exits abdominopelvic cavity deep to inguinal ligament to enter femoral triangle

51

femoral artery in triangle?

major branches to hip joint, anterior and posterior thigh

52

course of femoral artery?

through triangle
-enters adductor canal to gain posterior of lower limb (popliteal fossa)
-becomes popliteal artery when escapes adductor canal, and provides branches to knee joint

-upon exiting the popliteal fossa, bifurcates to form anterior and posterior popliteal arteries

53

posterior tibial artery

circulation to posterior and lateral compartments
-via fibular artery

also to plantar surface of foot

54

major anastomoses of lower limb?

hip, knee, ankle, foot

55

deep veins in lower limb?

named for arteries with which they travel

56

distal veins?

doubled, located lateral and medial to artery with which they travel

57

superficial veins?

great saphenous vein
lesser saphenous vein

58

greater saphenous vein

begins on medial side of dorsum of foot (dorsal venous arch)

ascends medially along leg and thigh
-anterior to medial malleolus at ankle
-posterior to medial condyle of femur

parallels course of saphenous nerve in leg

receives superficial venous drainage from upper thigh and lower abdomen prior to joining femoral vein

empties into femoral vein
-after passing through the saphenous vein opening of fascia lata

59

lesser saphenous vein

begins on lateral side of dorsum of foot (dorsal venouns arch)

ascends laterally behind lateral malleolus and along midline of calf parrallening sural nerve

pierces crural fascia to join popliteal vein

60

superficial veins?

contain valves
-due to increased black flow - venous congestion
-can form varicosities (tortuous, incompetent veins)

used in coronary bypass surgeries**

61

popliteal nodes

lymph nodes in popliteal fossa

62

superficial inguinal nodes

located inferior to inguinal ligament, within superficial fascial layer

assume shape of a T
-horizontal portion located parallel and inferior to inguinal ligament
-vertical portion located over saphenous vein opening

63

deep inguinal nodes

located deep to fascia lata within femoral triangle, medial to femoral vein

64

iliac nodes

external, internal, and common

located along paths of those vessels

65

lymph drainage?

superficial - lymphatic channels that parallel course of superficial veins
-from subQ areas of of entire lower limb, deep inguinal nodes, gluteal region, and perineum

deep - lymphatic channels parallel to deep vessels
-deep inguinal lymph nodes receive lymph from muscles, tendons, joint capsules of entire lower limb

66

motor innervation of lower limb?

spinal cord segments (L2-4)
-via femoral and obturator nerves and L4-S3 from sacral plexus via sciatic nerve and its branches

67

femoral nerve

L 2,3,4

-enters femoral triangle deep to inguinal ligament
-provides motor and sensory branches while in triangle
-innervates anterior femoral musculature and skin of anterior thigh, medial leg, and medial foot

68

obturator nerve

L 2,3,4

-enters thigh via obturator canal
-provides motor innevation to adductor muscles of thigh and cutaneous to medial surface of thigh

69

sciatic nerve

L 4,5 S 1,2,3
exits pelvis via greater sciatic foramen

-courses through posterior thigh to bifurcate
-in popliteal fossa into tibial and common fibular nerve

innervates all posterior thigh, leg, and plantar musculature as well as specific cutaneous areas of corresponding regions

70

sensory innervation of lower limb?

cutaneous innervation from branches of lumbar and sacral plexus and dorsal rami of spinal nerves L1-3 and S1-3

71

sacral plexus?

ventral rami of L1-S2

72

dermatomes of lower limb?

involved spinal cord levels L1-S2
-spiral around limb from lateral to medial in barber pole fashion

L4 dermatome located anterior to greater trochanter, overlays the patella, medial malleolus and great toe

S1,2 descends middle and posterior thigh and leg

S1 overlays lateral malleolus
S2 located on medial plantar surface of heel

L4 and S1 cross dorsum and plantar surface of foot from medial to lateral