Flashcards in Joints of the Lower Limb Deck (70):
type of joint in hip?
synovial ball and socket
articulation of hip joint?
head of femur and acetabulum
what deepens hip socket?
transverse acetabular ligament
fibrocartilage rim attached to bony rim of acetabulum and transverse acetabular ligament
capsule attachments in hip?
superior - brim of acetabulum near transverse ligament
inferior - anteriorly to intertrochanteric line and junction of neck and femur with trochanter
posteriorly possesses a free (unattached) border that covers 2/3 proximal femoral neck
structure of capsule in hip?
two laminae of fibers
superficial lamina of hip capsule
longitudinal fibers that limit movement of limb in specific direction
deep lamina of hip capsule
circular fibers (zona orbicularis) which provide screw home effect between head of femur and acetabulum
Y shaped inverted
-one of strongest in body
attaches superiorly to AIIS and inferiorly to intertrochanteric line and inferior portion of greater trochanter
when is iliofemoral ligament tightest?
in full extension
forms medial inferior portion of capsule
attaches medially to brim of pubic portion of acetabulum and obturator crest of superior pubic ramus and laterally to neck of femur near lesser throchanter
function of pubofemoral ligament?
limits abduction, becomes tight in extension
gap between what ligaments?
ilio and pubofemoral ligaments anteriorly and inferiorly
covered by psoas major and its bursa
attached posteriorly to ischial portion of acetabulum, laterally to neck of femur medial to root of greater trochanter
fibers compromising the ligament spiral in their course
forms posterior free margin of capsule
becomes tight in extension
ligamentum teres capitis femoris
arises from edge of acetabular notch and transverse acetabular ligament
attaches to fovea capitis of femur
also has artery
synovial lining of hip
surrounds/lines non-articular elements of joint
arterial supply of hip
lateral and medial femoral circumflex
superior and inferior gluteal
obturator artery provides branch to head of femur
innervation of hip joint?
articular branches from nerves to muscles which surround joint
-femoral, superior gluteal, nerve to quadratus femoris
limits to range of motion at hip?
capsular and intracapsular ligaments
what is more powerful at hip?
lateral rotation of thigh
type of joint at knee
synovial modified hinge (does allow some rotation)
joint articulations of knee
femoral and tibial condyles and femur with patella
osseous modification of knee joint?
expanded roller surface of femur and expanded tibial plateau
what guides rotation of knee?
capsule of knee attachments?
superiorly to condyles and intercondylar fossa of femur
inferiorly to margins of tibial condyles
laterally, buttressed by IT tract, anteriorly by expansions of fascia lata
small openings for communications between muscular bursa and synovial cavity of joint
lateral and medial patellar retinacula
expansion of vastus lateralis and medialis that pass from attachments of these muscles on patella to the tibial condyles as far posterior as collateral ligaments
oblique popliteal ligament
expansion of semimembranous tendon superolaterally toward lateral femoral condyle
arcuate popliteal ligament
expansion of attachment of biceps femoris to fibular head
arches superiorly and medially over popliteus muscle
ligaments of capsule in knee
lateral and medial patella retinacula
extension of quadriceps tendon across tibia to tibial tuberosity
medial collateral ligament
broad and thin but tough
passes from medial femoral epicondyle to upper medial portion of tibia below condyle
attaches to medial meniscus***
lateral collateral ligament
pencil like cord from lateral femoral epicondyle to head of fibula
tendon of popliteus muscle passes between it and the capsule of the knee so that no attachments of collateral ligament to lateral meniscus are possible
what passes between lateral collateral and lateral meniscus?
tendon of popliteus muscle
synovia of knee joint
lines interior of joint except articular surface and cruciate ligaments
cruciates are intracapsular but extra synovial***
infrapatellar synovial fold
from infrapatellar fat pad to cruciate ligaments; divide joint space to lateral and medial tibiofemoral compartments
extension of synovial cavity beneath quadriceps tendon
cartilage of knee?
attachment of menisci?
attached to intercondylar area anteriorly and posteriorly
coronary ligaments attach lateral margins of menisci to margin of tibial plateau
transverse genicular ligament
attach menisci to each other
function of menisci?
cushion joint and stabilize articulation by deepening articular surface
intrasapsular ligaments of knee?
anterior cruciate ligaments
from medial surface of lateral femoral condyle to anterior intercondylar area
prevents posterior displacement of femur when foot is fixed
posterior cruciate ligament
lateral surface of medial condyle of femur to posterior intercondylar area
prevents forward displacement of femur when foot is fixed firmly
keep menisci from being trapped during knee flexion
stabilize knee during posterior translation of lateral femoral condyle
anterior meniscofemoral ligament
extend from lateral meniscus to blend superiorly with anterio surface of posterior cruciate ligament
posterior meniscofemoral ligament
extend from lateral meniscus to blend superiorly with posterior surface of posterior cruciate ligament
arterial supply of knee
innervation of knee
articular branches are provide by nerves which innervate the muscles which surround the joint
femoral, obturator, tibial, common fibular
proximal tibiofibular joint?
synovial plane/gliding joint
articulation - head of fibula and fibular facet of posterolateral surface of lateral tibial condyle
what strengthens capsule of proximal tibiofibular joint
anterior and posterior ligaments of head of fibula
arteries to proximal tibiofibular joint?
lateral inferior genicular
anterior tibial recurrent
nerves to proximal tibiofibular joint
common fibular nerve
nerve to popliteus
distal tibiofibular articulation?
fibrous joint between distal tibia and fibula
ligaments of distal tibiofibular articulation
anterior, posterior, and transverse tibiofibular ligaments
thickened inferior portion of interosseous ligament in distal tibiofibular joint
anterior, posterior, and transverse tibiofibular ligaments
arteries to distal tibiofibular joint?
nerve to distal tibiofibular joint?
deep fibular and tibial nerves
synovial hinge joint
articulation of talocrural joint?
inferior tibial surface
medial malleolus of tibia and lateral malleolus of fibula
medial malleolus and lateral malleolus
capsule of talocrural joint?
lax anterior and posteriorly to allow flexion and extension (dorsi and plantar)
buttressed laterally and medially by strong collateral ligaments
medial collateral ligaments of talocrural?
lateral collateral ligaments of talocrural?
arterial of talocrural joint?
nerves to talocrural joint?
tibial and deep fibular nerves