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Flashcards in Clinical Relevance Of The Larynx Deck (39):
1

What else does the pretracheal layer enclose

Strap muscles
Thyroid gland
Trachea
Larynx
Recurrent laryngeal nerves

2

What is e exact location of the larynx

Found anterior of laryngopharynx
Between carotid sheaths
Between C4-C6

3

How si the larynx an important part of the upper RESP tract

Communicates with oropharynx above
Communicates to trachea below
At C6 at cricoid cartilage larynx becomes trachea and pharynx becomes oes

4

How does the larynx keep the upper RESP tract open

Rigid cartilage skeleton and little bone
Cartilages suspended by hyoid


Prevent foreign bodies into lrt helped by the vocal cords and cough reflex

Produce sound also

5

What dos the skeleton of the larynx compose of

Epiglottis
Hyoid bone
Thyrohyoid mem
Thyroid cartilage
Cricothyroid mem
Arch cricoid mem
Trachea

6

What is important about the Cricothyroid mem

Used as access point for Cricothyroid puncture for air

7

What is special about the epiglottis

Made of elastic cartilage whilst all other cartilages of the larynx consists of hyaline cartilage

8

What is the only complete circle of cartilage in the larynx

Cricoid

9

The trachea appears to be a complete circle but what is it

C shaped cart and the posterior is trachealis smooth muscle

10

What are the two differnt parts of the cricoid

Arch anterior
Lamina posterior

11

What is the Adam's apple

Laryngeal prominence

12

What type of joint is the Cricothyroid joint and what does it allow

Synovial
Allows nodding anterior to posterior

13

What are the horns of the arytenoid cartilages

Vocal process - attach to vocal cords
Muscular process -attach of muscles
Corniculate - cartilage of its own

14

What are vocal cords

Thickened ligaments between thyroid cartilages and vocal processes of arytenoid cartilages

15

What is the rimma glottidus

Space where air passes thro when Breathing and when trying to talk vibrates vocal cords

16

What do the cuneiform and corniculate cartilages do

No part in moving vocal cords just support laryngeal inlet

17

How many cartilages all together

9
3 pairs
Cuneiform
Corniculate
Arytenoid

3 singles
Epiglottis
Thyroid
Cricoid

18

What is endotracheal intubation

Placing a breathing tube inside the trachea
Inserted through the mouth oropharynx
Laryngeal inlet trachea

19

What is a laryngoscopy

View interior of larynx
Blade into valeculla to view

20

What is the mucosa of the larynx like

Mainly RESP mucosa - mucous sec mucociliary escalator
Except stratified squamous epi

21

What are false vocal cords

Aka vestibular folds
Superior
Protect airway

22

What are true vocal cord

Have an affect on speech
Thickened ligament when not covered in mucosa when is covered in mucosa is a vocal fold
Inferior

23

What cranial nerve supplies all laryngeal mucosa and how is this done

CN X vagus
SUPEIROR to vocal fold - internal laryngeal branches of superior laryngeal branch

Vocal fold and inferior - recurrent laryngeal branches

24

What do the Cricothyroid muscles do

Tense vocal cords
Allow nodding

25

What does the thyro-arytenoid muscles do

Relax vocal cords
Pull arytenoid cartilages toward thyroid cartilages

26

What do the lateral crico-arytenoid muscles do

Adduct vocal cords
Rotate arytenoid cartilages so that the vocal processes of the cartilages come together in the midline

27

What do the arytenoid muscles do

Transverse and oblique
Adduct vocals cords
Assist lateral crico-arytenoids to gently close rimma glottidus so no air space
Sphincter function

28

What does the posterior crico-arytenoid muscle do

Abduct the vocal cords
Rotate arytenoids carts so that vocal processes moves laterally
Widens rims glottidis

29

Normal respiration position

Laryngeal muscles relaxed

30

Forced respiration position

Posterior crico-arytenoid contract - rimma glottidis as wide as possible

31

Phonation position

Arytenoids contract assist lateral crico-arytenoids
Force air over vocal cords

32

Whispering position

Lateral crico-arytenoids contracts pull vocal cords at front but still small space at the back open

33

What si the anatomy of oral sounds

Soft palate tenses cn v3 and descends CN x to close off nasopharynx
Direct air to oral cav
Tongue CN Xii interrupt air and teeth/lips CN VII hep prod vowels and consonants

34

What su the anatomy of nasal sounds

Soft palate tenses CN v3 and descends CN x close off oropharynx
Air to nasal cav
Prod n m ing sound dep on tongue position CN Xii and teeth/lips CN VII

35

How to clinically test vagus nerve

Ask pt to swallow some water
Listen to them speak
Ask pt to cough

36

What sit he anatomy of coughing

Dia inv by phrenic nerve
Close vocal ligaments by vagus
Contract abdominal wall increase pressure
Open vocal chords sudden
Tense v3 and elevate CN Xi soft palate for air thro mouth

37

What is aspiration

Inhalation of liquid or solid into lungs
Abnormal swallowing
Breathing in

38

What is done if there is a laryngeal obstruction

Emergency air management
Heinrich manoeuvre
Cricothyroid puncture

39

Where is the larynx

Enclosed in pretracheal fascia in the visceral layer
Just behind strap muscles