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Flashcards in Meninges And Headache Deck (30):
1

What are some other muscles associated with tension headaches

Temporalis - attaches to coronoid process of mandible
Masseter muscle

2

What is often the thinnest part of the skull

Pterion

3

What artery sounds beneath the Pterion

The Middle meningeal artery

4

What is a gyrus and sulcus

Gyrus - stuck out but
Sulcus - duo in brain

5

What are the anatomical divisions of the brain

Anterior
Posterior
Middle

6

How are the lobes named

In relation to bone against

7

What does the cerebellum contain

Precise motor Actuvity lots of fine motor fibres

8

What are the components of the midbrain

Midbrain
Pons
medulla oblongata

9

Where do the cranial nerves arise form the brain

CN 3,4 ( oculomotor and trochlear) - midbrain
CN 5 (trigeminal ) - pons
CN 6,7,8 (abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear) - junction between pons and medulla
CN 9,10, 12 (Glossopharyngeal, vagus, hypoglossal) - medulla
CN 11 (spinal accessory ) - spins, chord

10

Give an example of a space occupying lesion

Tumours
Increase pressure of cranial cav
Inflammation
Bleeding
Hydrocephaly can do this too

11

What is meningitis

Bacterial infection causing inflammation of the meninges

12

What's re the meninges

Protective coverings for the brain and spinal cord

13

What are the 3 layers of the meninges

Dura mater - hard mother, durable tough, vascularised, innervated, has 2 sep layers which are MENINGEAL + PERIOSTEAL

Subarachnoid mater - spidery mother, loose cobwebs, have arachnoid granulations that reabsorb CSF

Pia mater - faithful mother, completely covers brain and spinal cord

14

What so the subarachnoid space

Under arachnoid ,contains CSF

15

Describe the two layers of dura mater

PERIOSTEAL - outer, stuck very closely to inner aspect of skull
Meningeal - inner

16

What happens when the two layers of dura mater folds on themselves or separate

Form
- Falx cerebrai
- tentorium cerebelli

Separate form
- dural venous sinuses that are channels to drsin blood from the brain

17

Where is the confluence of dural venous sinuses

Opposite the internal occipital protuberance

18

Which layer of the meninges is the only innervated layer and what innervates It

Dura mater
Innervated by the trigeminal nerve

19

What are some intracranial causes of headache

Tumours
Inflammation
Bleeding
Hydrocephalus

20

What are the two arteries that mainly supply the Brian with arterial blood

Vertebral arteries (right and left combine to form the basilar artery)
Internal carotid arteries

21

What is the mechanism by which the brain is supplied with blood

Circle of Willis
2 vertebral arteries form basilar artery
Posterior cerebral arteries
Posterior Communicating arteries
Internal carotid arteries
Anterior communicating artery
Middle cerebral arteries

22

What are the main dural venous sinuses

Superior and inferior Sagittal sinuses
Straight sinus
Transverse sinuses
Confluence
Sigmoid sinuses
Superior petrosal
Cavernous sinus

23

What does the sigmoid sinus attach to

Internal jugular vein at jugular foramen

24

How is CSF reabsorbed and recycled

Into dural venous sinuses by specialised arachnoid granulations most common on superior sagittal sinus

25

What dos the CSF do

Cushions the brain and spinal chord both internally and externally

26

What happens if too much Csf is made

Called water on brain
Hydrocephaly

27

Where is CSF produced

Lateral ventricles
3rd ventricle
4the ventricle

28

How do u test for meningitis

Do a spinal tap to take a sample of the CSF
This is done at L2 as this is where spinal chord ends

29

Explain the 3 ways that bleeding can occur outside the brain but within the skull

Extra dural
- between bone and dura
- tear in Middle meningeal artery
- trauma to Pterion

Sub dural
- separates dura from arachnoid
- tear in cerebral vein
- falls in elderly and alcohol problems

Sub arachnoid
- into subarachnoid space where CSF is
- tear in circle of Willis
-congenital aneurysm

30

What is the main cause of tension headaches

When muscles such a s the frontalis or occipitalis are tight and contracting a lot causing pressure on the bones and nerves