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Flashcards in Head Movement Deck (40):
1

What are the 5 types of vertebrae

7 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
4 occygeal

2

What happens to the vertebra form superior to inferior

Become larger as the bear more weight and then taper off and become smaller again once the weight transfers to hip bones

3

What are the curvatures of the spine and are they primary or secondary

Cervical - secondary
Thoracic - primary
Lumbar - secondary
Sacral - primary

4

What makes a curvature primary or secondary

Primary - original curvature as a fetus
Secondary - occurs as matures and able to have correct posture and weight bearance

5

What are the functions of the spine

Support the weight of the head
Trunk posture
Protect the spinal cord and spinal nerves
Allow movements

6

What are the features of a typical vertebrae

1 spinous process
2 transverse process
Vertebral foramen
Vertebral body
Vertebral arch (2 pedicel and 2 lamina)
2 superior articular processes
2 inferior articular processes

7

Where are the intervertebral foramen and what emerges through them

Form between adjacent vertebrae
Spinal nerves emerge through here

8

Where is a facet joint

Between articular processes of 2 adjacent vertebrae

9

What disease can affect facet joints

Arthritis

10

What pain signals are transmitted by facet joints

Via posterior rami

11

What are the intervertebral discs

Strong attachment between the bodies of vertebrae

12

What bad thing can happen to intervertebral discs

They can herniate pain signal via posterior rami

13

What length does the intervertebral discs constitute to the length of the spine

20-25%

14

What kind of cartilage are the intervertebral discs

Secondary cartilaginous

15

Intervertebral discs are between all vertebrae Except

C1-c2 and the fused sacrum and coccyx

16

What are the inner and outer rings of the intervertebral discs and their functions

Outer ring - annulus fibrosis - fibre cartilage - strong bond

Inner ring - nucleus pulposus - flex and protection

17

What is a herniated slipped disc

Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus through annulus fibrosis

18

Where does a herniated disc usually protrude from

Through the thinnest part of the annulus fibrosis which is posterolaterally

19

What does a herniated disc do that causes an issue

Press against the spinal cord

20

Where is the most commonly affected area of a herniated disc

Cervical area c6/7 which supply upper limbs

21

What is the ligament that connects adjacent lamina

Ligamentum flavum

22

What ligament connects all the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs in the posterior aspect

The posterior longitudinal ligament

23

What ligament attaches to anterior aspects of all vertebrae and intervertebral discs

Anterior longitudinal ligament

24

What does the supra spinous ligament connect

Connects tips of spinous processes

25

What does the inter spinous ligament connect

Connect superior and inferior surfaces of adjacent spinous processes

26

What do all the cervical vertebrae have

All have foramen in each transverse process

27

Explain the c1

Atlas
Does not have a body or spinous orocess
Has a posterior arch and an anterior arch instead

28

Explain c2

Axis
Has odontoid process
Projects superiorly form body

29

Explain c7

Vertebrae prominens
First palpable spinous process

30

What kind of joints are the Atlanto- occipital joints

Synovial hints

31

Where are the atlantoocciptal joints

Between occiptsl condyles and superiori articular facets of atlas

32

What are the main movements at the atlanto- occiptal joints

Main movement at the joints are flexion and extension of the neck and rotatory movement

33

What kind of joints are the atlanto axial joints

3 synovial joints

34

Where are the atlanto axial joints

2 of them
- between inferior articular facets of the atlas and the superior articular facets of axis


1 other is
- between anterior I arch of the atlas and the odontoid process of axis

35

What is the main craniovertebral ligament

The nuchal ligament which connects form the external occipital protuberance

36

The posterior longitudinal ligament becomes a different ligament at a superiori aspect

Tectorial mem

37

The anterior longitudinal becomes 2 different ligaments what happens

Becomes atlanto axial mem then anterior Atlanti occipital mem

38

What are the components of the cruciate mem

SUPEIROR longitudinal band
Transverse lig of atlas
Inferior longitudinal band

39

So if a patient complains of a sore neck what can this mean

Arthritis of facet joints
A herniated disc

40

How many vertebrae in total

33