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CHI282 - Human Anatomy 2 > Clinical Significance > Flashcards

Flashcards in Clinical Significance Deck (17):


• Accentuated lateral and rotational curve of the thoracic or lumbar spine.
• Aetiology: genetic, trauma, idiopathic; occurs in adolescent
girls more than boys


Kyphosis “Hunch-back”

• Accentuated flexion of thoracic spine.

• Aetiology: poor posture, osteoporosis.


Lordosis “Sway-back”

• Accentuated extension of lumbar spine.
• Aetiology: weakened trunk muscles, late pregnancy, obesity.



• Progressive erosion of cartilage in joints of spine, fingers, knee
and hip (most commonly).
• In spine => can lead to spinal nerve impingement



• Affects 3-6% population.
• Defect where vertebral arch becomes separated from it’s body.
• 85-95% cases at L5; 5-15% at L4.



• Anterior or posterior displacement of vertebrae in relation to vertebrae below.


IV disc herniation

• Peripheral tears (mostly posterolateral) of anulus fibrous allows for extrusion and herniation of nucleus pulposus which may
impinge spinal nerves.

• Lumbar disc herniations are common and result in pain over SI joint, hip, posterior thigh and leg.


Spinal nerve root irritation

• Pain in affected dermatome.
• Sensory losses in affected dermatome.
• Motor deficits in “indicator” muscles.
• Reflexes associated with affected segment are diminished or


Lesions of spinal cord and peripheral nerves

• Dorsal root lesions will lead to sensory disturbances in dermatomes.
• Ventral root lesions will lead to motor disturbances = weakness (paresis) because muscles usually receive innervation from several segments.


Median nerve palsy

Median nerve lesion result in inability to flex thumb, index and
middle finger at MCP joint.

Ring and little fingers still flexed because the ulnar nerve is intact.


Ulnar nerve palsy " claw hand"

Ulnar nerve lesion results in inability to flex the DIP joint of ring and little finger.
Patients can’t make a complete fist. Also can’t extend interphalangeal joints to straighten fingers.


Radial nerve palsy "wrist drop"

Radial nerve lesion results in denervation of extensor muscles in forearm. Because forearm flexor muscles no longer opposed, wrist drops.


Anatomical snuff box lies between which two tendons?

Extensor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis


Neurovascular bundle contains what?

Axillary artery
Axillary veins
Median nerve
Ulnar nerve
Brachial artery


Rotator cuff injury

• Wear & tear.
• Degeneration of subacromial bursa => degeneration of underlying supraspinatus muscle.
• Tearing of supraspinatus tendon.
• Difficulty in initiating rotation (movement).


Carpal tunnel contains what structures

• 4 tendons of flexor digitorum profundus (deep)
• 4 tendons of flexor digitorum superificialis
• Tendon of flexor pollicis longus
• Median nerve


Cubital tunnel

Cubital tunnel Passageway between medial epicondyle of
humerus and olecranon process of ulna.

Ulnar nerve passes posterior to medial epicondyle.

Compression of ulnar nerve as it passes beneath the ulnar collateral ligament between two heads of flexor carpi ulnaris.

Effects on motor branch to FCU, FDP (medial 1⁄2), intrinsic muscles of hand, hypothenar eminence and sensory branches to skin on ring (medial 1/2) and little finger.

Treatment may involve moving ulnar nerve from posterior to anterior