Flashcards in Lecture 1-Brain Deck (35):
Define cerbral cortex, grey matter and white matter
Cortex: outer, or most superficial, layer of an
• Grey matter: tissue containing cell bodies of
• White matter: tissue containing axons of
What is incorporated in the telencephalon
Cerebral cortex, white matter and basal ganglia
What is incorporated in the diencephalon
pineal gland, sub thalamus, hypothalamus, dorsal thalamus
How much does the adult human brain weigh?
Define gyri, sulci and fissures
Gyri = elevated ridges
Sulci = shallow grooves
Fissures = deep grooves
Name the major sulci and gyri
Post central gyris, pre central gyris, lateral sulci, central sulci, pre central sulci
Name the 6 lobes of the brain
Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, limbric and insular
What is the corpus callosum
areas of similar
function in both
Function of the Frontal cortex
supplementary motor area
Function of pre central gyris
Primary motor area
Function post-central gyrus
primary somatosensory cortex & gustatory cortex
Function of parietal lobe
somatosensory association areas
Function of temporal lobe
auditory and auditory association area
Function of occipital lobe
visual cortex and visual association area
Pre central gyris (dark pink area). What do large nerve motor cells control?
Large motor nerve cells in this area control voluntary movements
on opposite (contralateral) side of body.
Post-central gyrus (dark blue) = primary somatosensory cortex. What does it control?
Nerve cells in this area receive and interpret sensations of pain,
temperature, touch and pressure from contralateral side of body.
What are the brain structures involved in movement production?
• Cerebral cortex
• Basal ganglia
• Brainstem (L2)
• Cerebellum (L3)
=> Motor pathways transfer information between
What is the thalamus?
• Largest division of diencephalon -composed of many nuclei.
• Receives and processes precortical input from all sensory systems except olfactory system.
• Then conveys information (projects) to the cerebral cortex.
What is basal ganglia?
• Sub-cortical grey matter nuclei.
• Essential component of extra-pyramidal motor system-> role in initiation & execution of motor activity.
What is the corpus striatum?
The putamen and caudate nucleus combined
What is the lentiform nucleus?
The putamen and the globus pallidus combined
Arterial blood supply of the brain
• High energy use, no substrate (glucose) stored and can’t metabolise without oxygen => need constant supply of oxygenated blood containing glucose.
• Total cerebral blood flow ~ 750mL/min (250mL/min from 2x carotid, 1x basilar arteries)
• Total intracranial blood volume ~ 125mL.
• Intracranial blood pool must be replaced 6 times per minute!
Arterial blood supply of the brain
• 2.5% body weight.
• Receives 15% of CO.
• Internal carotid (anterior circulation) & vertebral arteries
Anterior cerebral artery supplies which part of the brain?
Dorsal surface of brain ( superior portion)
Posterior cerebral artery supplies which part of the brain?
Ventral portion of the brain (inferior)
Middle cerebral artery supplies which part of the brain?
Lateral section of the brain
Anterior cerebral artery is a branch of the?
branch of internal carotid artery
Middle cerebral artery is a branch of the?
Posterior cerebral artery is a terminal branch of the?
Occlusion of the anterior cerebral artery will lead to?
Sensorimotor function loss in lower limb & bladder weakness
Occlusion of middle cerebral artery will lead to?
Sensorimotor function loss primarily in face and hands
Occlusion of posterior cerebral artery will lead to?
Visual disturbances, possibly cause sensory loss on one side of the body if thalamus deprived of blood
Posterior cerebral artery supplies what part of the brain?
Occipital lobe and branches to the thalamus
The nervous system take the initial form of a cellular neural tube derived from the?