Lecture 1-Brain Flashcards Preview

CHI282 - Human Anatomy 2 > Lecture 1-Brain > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 1-Brain Deck (35):
0

Define cerbral cortex, grey matter and white matter

Cortex: outer, or most superficial, layer of an
organ.

• Grey matter: tissue containing cell bodies of
neurons.

• White matter: tissue containing axons of
neurons.

1

What is incorporated in the telencephalon

Cerebral cortex, white matter and basal ganglia

2

What is incorporated in the diencephalon

pineal gland, sub thalamus, hypothalamus, dorsal thalamus

3

How much does the adult human brain weigh?

1400g

4

Define gyri, sulci and fissures

Gyri = elevated ridges

Sulci = shallow grooves

Fissures = deep grooves

5

Name the major sulci and gyri

Post central gyris, pre central gyris, lateral sulci, central sulci, pre central sulci

6

Name the 6 lobes of the brain

Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, limbric and insular

7

What is the corpus callosum

Major commissure
(largest neocortical
commissural tract
between the
hemispheres)

Connection
between cortical
areas of similar
function in both
hemispheres

8

Function of the Frontal cortex

supplementary motor area

9

Function of pre central gyris

Primary motor area

10

Function post-central gyrus

primary somatosensory cortex & gustatory cortex

11

Function of parietal lobe

somatosensory association areas

12

Function of temporal lobe

auditory and auditory association area

13

Function of occipital lobe

visual cortex and visual association area

14

Pre central gyris (dark pink area). What do large nerve motor cells control?

Large motor nerve cells in this area control voluntary movements
on opposite (contralateral) side of body.

15

Post-central gyrus (dark blue) = primary somatosensory cortex. What does it control?

Nerve cells in this area receive and interpret sensations of pain,
temperature, touch and pressure from contralateral side of body.

16

What are the brain structures involved in movement production?

• Cerebral cortex
• Thalamus
• Basal ganglia
• Brainstem (L2)
• Cerebellum (L3)
=> Motor pathways transfer information between
these structures

17

What is the thalamus?

• Largest division of diencephalon -composed of many nuclei.
• Receives and processes precortical input from all sensory systems except olfactory system.
• Then conveys information (projects) to the cerebral cortex.

18

What is basal ganglia?

• Sub-cortical grey matter nuclei.
• Essential component of extra-pyramidal motor system-> role in initiation & execution of motor activity.

19

What is the corpus striatum?

The putamen and caudate nucleus combined

20

What is the lentiform nucleus?

The putamen and the globus pallidus combined

21

Arterial blood supply of the brain

• High energy use, no substrate (glucose) stored and can’t metabolise without oxygen => need constant supply of oxygenated blood containing glucose.

• Total cerebral blood flow ~ 750mL/min (250mL/min from 2x carotid, 1x basilar arteries)

• Total intracranial blood volume ~ 125mL.

• Intracranial blood pool must be replaced 6 times per minute!

22

Arterial blood supply of the brain

• 2.5% body weight.
• Receives 15% of CO.
• Internal carotid (anterior circulation) & vertebral arteries
(posterior circulation)

23

Anterior cerebral artery supplies which part of the brain?

Dorsal surface of brain ( superior portion)

24

Posterior cerebral artery supplies which part of the brain?

Ventral portion of the brain (inferior)

25

Middle cerebral artery supplies which part of the brain?

Lateral section of the brain

26

Anterior cerebral artery is a branch of the?

branch of internal carotid artery

27

Middle cerebral artery is a branch of the?

Internal carotid

28

Posterior cerebral artery is a terminal branch of the?

Basilar artery

29

Occlusion of the anterior cerebral artery will lead to?

Sensorimotor function loss in lower limb & bladder weakness

30

Occlusion of middle cerebral artery will lead to?

Sensorimotor function loss primarily in face and hands

31

Occlusion of posterior cerebral artery will lead to?

Visual disturbances, possibly cause sensory loss on one side of the body if thalamus deprived of blood

32

Posterior cerebral artery supplies what part of the brain?

Occipital lobe and branches to the thalamus

33

The nervous system take the initial form of a cellular neural tube derived from the?

Ectoderm

34

The caudal part of the tube forms the

Spinal cord