Lecture 8 Vertebral Column Flashcards Preview

CHI282 - Human Anatomy 2 > Lecture 8 Vertebral Column > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 8 Vertebral Column Deck (77):
0

Why do the vertebral bodies of the sacrum & coccyx get smaller more inferiorly?

?

1

Lumbar vertebrae

•n=5 vertebrae;
•Large kidney-shaped body for weight-bearing;
•Mid-sized triangular vertebral foramen;
•Facets are faced in a medial or lateral direction permitting good .......... ....... ..........;
•Spinous processes are .......

flexion and extension

2

Coccyx: no ....... ....... or ........ ........ (dural sac of spinal cord ends at S2)

vertebral arches
vertebral canal

3

Intervertebral joints are joints between ........ .........

vertebral bodies

4

•Zygapophyseal joints are the joints between

vertebral arches

5

Bifurcation of the aorta occurs at what vertebral level?

L4

6

The lumbar vertebrae has a mid-sized triangular vertebral ......?

foramen;

7

Lumbar facets face ......... or .........

medial
Lateral

8

The lumbar vertebrae prefers what type of movement?

Flexion and extension

9

In the lumbar vertebrae the spinous processes are ......?

Short

10

The lumbosacral angle is at what degrees?

130-160 degrees

11

The PSIS is located at what vertebral level?

S2

12

Craniovertebral
(atlanto-occipital & atlanto-axial joints) is located between what two structures?

Occiput and C1

13

Costovertebral joints Is the articulations of vertebrae and ......?

Ribs

14

Intervertebral joints
• Joints between the adjacent vertebral bodies.
• Weight-bearing joints.
• Shock-absorbers due to IV discs.
• Stabilised by anterior (strongest) and posterior longitudinal
ligaments.

.

15

Intervertebral disks are present from ..... And the .......?

C2
Sacrum

16

The annulus fibrosis, the outer part of the vertebral disk is made out what type of cartilage?

Fibrocartilage

17

Nucleus pulposus = is a .......... remnant (collagen, ......... ............) of embryonic ........

gelatinous
hydrated proteoglycans
notochord

18

IV discs are thickest in what region?

lumbar

19

The intervertabral disks are secured by the anterior and posterior ............ ............

longitudinal ligaments

20

The intervertebral disks account for what % in length of the vertebral column?

20-25%

21

Anterior longitudinal ligament is ......... and prevents .................. of spine (only ligament that limits extension!)
primarily attached to .......... ..........AND ........ discs.

strong
hyperextension
vertebral bodies
I.V

22

Posterior longitudinal ligament is ........ and prevents ................ of spine. => Attached mainly to ....... discs and
less to ........ bodies.

weaker
hyperflexion
I.V
vertebral

23

Supraspinous ligaments connect .......... ....... (C7 to sacrum) and are ........... and limit ...........

spinous tips
stronger
flexion

24

The supra spinous ligament travels from ...... to the sacrum

C7

25

Ligamentum nuchae connects ....... ....... of .......... vertebrae to external ........ ...........

spinous tips
cervical
occipital protuberance

26

Intertransverse ligaments connect ........... .......... and are ........

transverse processes
weak

27

Ligamenta flava connects adjacent ....... of vertebrae.

laminae

28

Ligamenta flava limits ......... and are more elastic than other ligaments

flexion

29

Interspinous ligaments connect ....... and are ......

spines
weak

30

Tranverse costal facets on the ......... .......... for
articulation with .......... of ribs.

transverse processes
tubercle

31

Superior and inferior costal facets (mostly small demifacets) on ................ margins of vertebral body for articulation with ...... of rib

Posterolateral
head

32

Zygapophyseal “facet” joints is a ....... ...... joints.

synovial plane

33

Zygapophyseal “facet” joints occur between the ....... and ........ ............ ............. of adjacent vertebrae.

superior
inferior
arcticular processes (facets)

34

Zygapophyseal “facet” joints allow for some ......./........ movement

gliding/sliding

35

........... is most mobile joint

C5-C6

36

......... permits most flexion

L4-L

37

Sensory nerve fibres derived from ....... ...... of spinal nerves supply the ......... ....... of the capsules surrounding these
facet joints => ..... % of back pain caused by changes in these joints

dorsal rami
synovial linings
15

38

Zygapophyseal “facet” joints takes innervation from accosiated ...... ....... as well as nerves from vertebrae ......... .... ........

nerve root
below and above

39

Atlanto-occipital joints
• ......... .......... synovial joints.
• Allows ........ and ......... (i.e. nodding head up and down) and ......... ....... (i.e. sideways tilting).

Biaxial condyloid
flexion/extension
lateral flexion

40

Atlanto-occipital joints-
Movement of joint limited by the ......... and ......... .........-........... membranes.

anterior
posterior
atlanto-occipital

41

Atlanto-axial joints
• 2x ........ atlanto-axial joint =........ synovial joint.
• 1x ....... atlanto-axial joint =...... joint.

Lateral
Median
gliding
pivot

42

Atlanto-axial joints
Permits ......... ......... of head (i.e. shaking head saying “no”)

lateral rotation

43

Transverse ligament of Atlas
•Holds ........... process (dens) in place
•Allows .........

odontoid
rotation

44

Alar ligaments
• Attachment: Dens to ......... .........
• Limit ......... at the atlanto-axial joint

occipital condyles
rotation

45

Cruciform “Cross” ligaments
Transverse (.......) + longitudinal (........)

strong
weak

46

Tectorial membrane
Continuation of the ........ ......... ligament from ...... through foramen magnum to floor of cranium

posterior longitudinal
C2

47

Development of vertebrae
• Sclerotomes => vertebra.
• Notochord between vertebra => ......... ......
• Birth = 3 bony parts connected by cartilage (C3-C6).
• Halves of vertebral arch fuse at .......-years-old.
• Vertebral arch fuses to body at .......-years-old.

3-5
3-6
nucleus pulposus

48

Development
Sclerotome = ..............=Bone
• Ossification begins during ..... week.

Cartilage
8th

49

Scoliolis
• Accentuated ....... and ......... curve of the thoracic or lumbar spine.
• Aetiology: genetic, trauma, idiopathic; occurs in adolescent
girls more than boys

lateral
Rotational

50

Kyphosis “Hunch-back”
• Accentuated ........ of ......... spine.
• Aetiology: poor posture, osteoporosis.

flexion
Thoracic

51

Lordosis “Sway-back”
• Accentuated .......... of ........ spine.
• Aetiology: weakened trunk muscles, late pregnancy, obesity.

extension
lumbar

52

Osteoarthritis
• Progressive erosion of cartilage in joints of spine, fingers, knee
and hip (most commonly).
• In spine => can lead to spinal nerve ...........

impingement

53

Spondylolysis
• Affects ...-....% population.
• Defect where ......... ........ becomes separated from it’s body.
• .....-.....% cases at L5; ....-.....% at L4.

3-6
vertebral arch
85-95
5-15

54

Spondylolithesis
•......... or ......... displacement of vertebrae in relation to
vertebrae below.

Anterior
Posterior

55

IV disc herniation
• .......... tears (mostly posterolateral) of ........ ........ allows for extrusion and herniation of ........ ......... which may
impinge spinal nerves.

Peripheral
anulus fibrous
nucleus pulposus

56

IV disk herniation
• Lumbar disc herniations are common and result in pain over ....... ......... ........ ........

SI joint, hip, posterior thigh and leg

57

The lamina and the pedicel form the what?

Vertebral arch

58

The intervertebral joint is supported by what two things?

Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligament

59

The alar ligament limits what movement?

Rotation

60

Nutrient arteries branching from the ......... .......... ......... branch supply blood to the red bone marrow with the vertebral bodies.

anterior vertebral canal

61

• Internal vertebral venous plexus
communicates with ........ ......... and ....... ....... in cranium

dural sinuses
vertebral veins

62

Internal vertebral venous plexus
As well as communication with the dual sinus and vertebral veins it also communicates with the ....... ...... ...... ...... on....... surface of vertebrae.

external vertebral venous plexuses
external

63

There are:
.... anterior longitudinal spinal veins
....posterior longitudinal spinal veins

3
3

64

Basivertebral veins form ........ vertebral bodies.

WITHIN

65

Basivertebral veins emerge from ....... on surfaces of vertebral bodies (mostly ....... )

foramina
posterior

66

The basivertebral veins drain into the

venous plexuses

67

Spinal veins form ...... ....... along the vertebral column both inside (........ venous plexus) and outside (...... venous plexus) of vertebral canal.

venous plexuses
internal
external

68

Veins draining spinal cord -> internal & external venous plexus -> ....... ...... .. .......

vertebral veins of neck

69

Zygapophyseal (facet) joint pain
Degeneration of ...... ....... => synovial inflammation/capsular swelling => pain

articular cartilage

70

Osteophyte overgrowth of facet articular processes may ..... ... ... .....

impinge on nerve root.

71

Osteoarthritis
•.......... = bony outgrowth

•.......... ......... compresses spinal nerves.

Osteophytes
Osteophytic encroachment

72

What is another name for the zygapophyseal joints?

Facet joints

73

What is the distinguishing feature of C2?

Odontoid process (Dens)

74

Which ligament limits extension of the spine?

Anterior longitudinal ligament

75

What type of movement occurs at the atlanto-axial joint?

Lateral rotation of head

76

Is the cervical curvature of the spine acquired in utero or after birth?

After birth – once baby can support own head weight