Lecture 16- Arm and Shoulder Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 16- Arm and Shoulder Deck (13):
0

Intermuscular septum divides arm into anterior (.......) &
posterior (........) compartments.

flexor
extensor

1

Humerus
• Long bone
• Proximal head articulates with ......... ........ of scapula
• Distal medial and lateral epicondyles articulate at elbow with ulna and radius
• Surgical neck common fracture site which can endanger which nerve?

glenoid cavity
Axillary nerve

2

Anterior compartment of arm
• Muscles are primarily flexors of forearm at elbow
• Secondarily flexors of arm at shoulder (biceps brachii &
coracobrachialis)
• Innervated by ................ nerve
• Blood supply by .......... artery

musculocutaneous
brachial

3

Posterior compartment
• Primarily extensors of the forearm at elbow.
• Blood supply from deep artery of arm (profunda brachii).
• Innervated by radial nerve.

.

4

Blood supply of the upper limb
Aorta ->Brachiocephalic trunk ->Subclavian artery ->Axillary artery ->Brachial artery-> Radial artery->Ulnar artery

.

5

Blood supply of the arm Brachial artery supplies anterior arm muscles
Deep brachial artery (profunda brachii) supplies posterior arm
muscles

.

6

Innervation of arm muscles
Musculocutaneous nerve (lateral cord of brachial plexus)
Biceps brachii -> Brachialis ->Coracobrachialis

Radial nerve
(posterior cord of brachial plexus) ->Triceps brachii ->Anconeus

.

7

Superior appendicular skeleton
Bones of arm & shoulder comprised of:
• Pectoral girdle =
-> Clavicle
-> Scapula

+ Humerus

.

8

Clavicle
• Cylindrical bone.
• Slight “s” curve
• Formed by intra-membranous ossification (1st long bone to ossify).
• Most commonly fractured bone.
• Acts as a strut to keep limb away from trunk

.

9

Scapula
• Flat triangular bone.
• Shallow glenoid cavity.
• Attachment location for 17 muscles.
• Uncommon to fracture.

.

10

Joints of the pectoral girdle
& shoulder
• Acromioclavicular joint
• Glenohumeral joint
• Sternoclavicular joint

.

11

Acromioclavicular joint
• Synovial plane joint.
• Allows gliding movement as arm is raised and scapula rotates.
• Includes:
- Acromioclavicular joint capsule & ligament
- Coracoclavicular (conoid and trapezoid ligaments)

.

12

Glenohumeral joint
• Multi-axial synovial ball-and-socket joint.
• Shallow articulation.
• Most common dislocated joint (95% anterior: subcoracoid,
subglenoid, subclavicular)
• Stabilised by rotator cuff muscles.
• Permits flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, protraction,
retraction, circumduction.

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