Lecture 2- Brainstem Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2- Brainstem Deck (40):
0

The brainstem contains?

Cranial nerve nuclei (n11/12)

1

The brainstem has Long tracts transmitting somatosensory impulses from?

body to thalamus

2

Long tracts transmitting motor impulses from?

Primary motor cortex to spinal cord

3

Damage to the brainstem results in?

• Somatosensory or motor dysfunction
• Cranial nerve malfunction

4

What cranial nerves are located in the brainstem?

3-12

5

What artery sits on the sulcus of the pons?

Basilar artery

6

Axons from .......passes down through the ......, decussate(crosses over) in the.................and enter spinal cord

Primary motor cortex
Brainstem
Medulla oblongata

7

In the corona radiata, axons forming the pyramidal tract descend in which order?

1. 1st degree motor cortex
2. Corona radiata
3. Internal capsule
4. Midbrain ( cerebral crus )
5. Pons
6. Medulla oblongata ( pyramids )
7. Spinal cord

8

The mesencephalon (midbrain) is divided into three derivatives, what are these?

1. Tectum
2. Tegmentum
3. Basis pudunculi

9

The tectum contains what?

2x superior colliculus
2x inferior colliculus
Dorsal surface of cerebral aqueduct

10

Where is the tegmentum is located?

Between the tectum and basis pudunculi

11

The tegmentum contains the?

1. Red nucleus
2. Nucleus of oculomotor
3. Nucleus of trigeminal
4. Reticular formation

12

Why is the red nucleus red?

From high iron (Fe) content

13

The red nucleus receives input from the?

cerebral cortex and cerebellar nuclei.

14

The red nucleus gives rise to the? Which controls?

Gives rise to rubrospinal tract => controls flexor muscle tone.

15

Why is substantia Nigra brown?

Due to high content of melanin.

16

The substantia Nigra projects to the?

Striatum ( caudate nucleus and putamen) and thalamus

17

Death of dopaminergic cells leads to?

Parkinson’s disease => bradykinesia & hypokinesia (difficulty in initiating and performing voluntary movements).

18

Substantia Nigra is located in the?

Cerebral peduncles

19

Cerebral peduncle is a part of both the?

tegmentum + basis pedunculi.

20

The basis pedunculus contains?

corticospinal and corticopontine tracts.

21

What is the blood supply of the mesencephalon?

*Posterior communicating artery

• Posterior cerebral artery

• Superior cerebellar artery
artery

22

The cerebral aqueduct is located between the?

tectum and tegmentum.

23

The cerebral aqueduct is surrounded

Periaqueductal grey matter.

24

The cerebral aqueduct connects the?

3rd and 4th ventricles

25

Blockage of the cerebral aqueduct would cause?

hydrocephalus

26

Anterior (ventral) surface of the pons consists of transverse bundles of fibres that become continuous laterally with the?

middle cerebellar peduncle

27

The corticospinal tract is from the?

Primary motor cortex to the spinal cord ( descending)

28

The tegmentum is the major

ascending sensory pathway

29

The pons is connected to the cerebellum via the?

middle cerebellar peduncle.

30

The pons contains nuclei that mediate several functions, what are these?

Auditory and balance

31

The pons has input from the?

Vestibular system

32

The pons communicates with the cerebellum for?

Balance

33

The pons control sensory input from the?

Face

34

The pons sends motor neurons to?

muscles of the face for voluntary and involuntary facial expression.

35

The pons is supplied by the?

Basilar artery

36

The pons gives rise to which cranial nerves?

CN V, VI, VII, VIII (5,6,7,8)

37

The medulla oblongata contains pyramids which contain?

Corticospinal fibres which primarily project from the primary motor cortex in the precentral gyrus.

38

90% of corticospinal fibres decussate (cross-over) in the ......................to pass dorso-laterally to form the lateral corticospinal tract.

caudal 1/3 of medulla oblongata

39

10% of corticospinal fibres don’t decussate and form the?

anterior corticospinal tract.