Flashcards in Lecture 2- Brainstem Deck (40):
The brainstem contains?
Cranial nerve nuclei (n11/12)
The brainstem has Long tracts transmitting somatosensory impulses from?
body to thalamus
Long tracts transmitting motor impulses from?
Primary motor cortex to spinal cord
Damage to the brainstem results in?
• Somatosensory or motor dysfunction
• Cranial nerve malfunction
What cranial nerves are located in the brainstem?
What artery sits on the sulcus of the pons?
Axons from .......passes down through the ......, decussate(crosses over) in the.................and enter spinal cord
Primary motor cortex
In the corona radiata, axons forming the pyramidal tract descend in which order?
1. 1st degree motor cortex
2. Corona radiata
3. Internal capsule
4. Midbrain ( cerebral crus )
6. Medulla oblongata ( pyramids )
7. Spinal cord
The mesencephalon (midbrain) is divided into three derivatives, what are these?
3. Basis pudunculi
The tectum contains what?
2x superior colliculus
2x inferior colliculus
Dorsal surface of cerebral aqueduct
Where is the tegmentum is located?
Between the tectum and basis pudunculi
The tegmentum contains the?
1. Red nucleus
2. Nucleus of oculomotor
3. Nucleus of trigeminal
4. Reticular formation
Why is the red nucleus red?
From high iron (Fe) content
The red nucleus receives input from the?
cerebral cortex and cerebellar nuclei.
The red nucleus gives rise to the? Which controls?
Gives rise to rubrospinal tract => controls flexor muscle tone.
Why is substantia Nigra brown?
Due to high content of melanin.
The substantia Nigra projects to the?
Striatum ( caudate nucleus and putamen) and thalamus
Death of dopaminergic cells leads to?
Parkinson’s disease => bradykinesia & hypokinesia (difficulty in initiating and performing voluntary movements).
Substantia Nigra is located in the?
Cerebral peduncle is a part of both the?
tegmentum + basis pedunculi.
The basis pedunculus contains?
corticospinal and corticopontine tracts.
What is the blood supply of the mesencephalon?
*Posterior communicating artery
• Posterior cerebral artery
• Superior cerebellar artery
The cerebral aqueduct is located between the?
tectum and tegmentum.
The cerebral aqueduct is surrounded
Periaqueductal grey matter.
The cerebral aqueduct connects the?
3rd and 4th ventricles
Blockage of the cerebral aqueduct would cause?
Anterior (ventral) surface of the pons consists of transverse bundles of fibres that become continuous laterally with the?
middle cerebellar peduncle
The corticospinal tract is from the?
Primary motor cortex to the spinal cord ( descending)
The tegmentum is the major
ascending sensory pathway
The pons is connected to the cerebellum via the?
middle cerebellar peduncle.
The pons contains nuclei that mediate several functions, what are these?
Auditory and balance
The pons has input from the?
The pons communicates with the cerebellum for?
The pons control sensory input from the?
The pons sends motor neurons to?
muscles of the face for voluntary and involuntary facial expression.
The pons is supplied by the?
The pons gives rise to which cranial nerves?
CN V, VI, VII, VIII (5,6,7,8)
The medulla oblongata contains pyramids which contain?
Corticospinal fibres which primarily project from the primary motor cortex in the precentral gyrus.
90% of corticospinal fibres decussate (cross-over) in the ......................to pass dorso-laterally to form the lateral corticospinal tract.
caudal 1/3 of medulla oblongata