Lecture 4- Spinal Cord And Spinal Nerves Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 4- Spinal Cord And Spinal Nerves Deck (79):
0

Spinal dura sac terminates at?

S2

1

Dural root sleeve covers ........... ........and becomes continuous with the.......... of spinal nerves.

Nerve rootlets
epineurium

2

Filum terminale projection of pia mater covered in dura mater anchors the?

spinal cord to the coccyx.

3

The spinal cord is the continuation of the?

Medulla oblongata

4

The spinal cord projects through the vertebral canal for what reason?

Protection

5

The spinak cord extends from foramen magnum to the lower border of .......in (adults),...... In(children)

L1 and L3

6

How much does the spinal cord weigh and what is its length in males and females?

• Weight: 30g (2% brain weight)
• Male: 45cm
• Female: 42cm

7

The spinal cord terminates ......... And forms the .............?

caudally as conus medullaris

8

Enlargement of the spina cord occurs where?

Cervical (C5-T1) and lumbosacral (L1-S2) enlargements.

9

Enlargements from C5 – T1 and from L1-S2 due to increased numbers of ......... .......... and ........... going to upper and lower extremities.

Motor neurons
Interneurons

10

What spinal arteries supply the spinal cord

Spinal arteries:
• 1 x anterior
• 2 x posterior

11

Blood supply of spinal cord

Subclavian => vertebral => spinal arteries.
• Reinforced by segmental medullary arteries.

12

Attachments of the spinal cord do what and where? Also where do they arise from?

• Suspend and anchor spinal cord within the dural sac.
• Arise from pia mater.

13

3 Attachments of the spinal cord are called?

1. Denticulate ligaments
2. Filum terminale
3. Spinal nerve roots

14

Dent inculcate ligament attaches the spinal cord to the?

Dural sac

15

Two attachments of the Dural sac?

Filum terminale
Spinal nerve roots

16

Spinal cord segments are portion of the spinal cord giving rise to the ........ and ........that ultimately form one ..........pair of spinal nerves

Rootlets
Roots
Bilateral

17

In the grey matter of the posterior horn contains, what type of neurons?

sensory interneurons

18

In the grey matter of the lateral horn contains what type of neurons?

preganglionic sympathetic neurons

19

In the grey matter of the anterior horn contains cell bodies of large ......... neurons that supply.......... .........?

Motor
Skeletal muscle

20

Efferent motor axons project from ......... grey horn through .......... ........ rootlets to mixed ......... ..........and on to the effector muscles.

Anterior
Ventral nerve
Spinal nerves

21

Afferent sensory axons project from ......./........through mixed ........ ........back to the ....... ........and on to the CNS.

Skin/joints
Spinal nerves
Dorsal root

22

All skeletal muscles have a tendency to contract in response to being ........?

Stretched

23

Reflex arc occurs within the?

Spinal cord

24

Biceps brachii, c5, which nerve?

Musculocutaneous

25

Brachialradialis, c6. Which nerve

Radial

26

Triceps brachii, c7. Which nerve?

Radial

27

Knee-jerk (patellar), quadriceps fe pros, L4. Which nerve?

Femoral nerve

28

Ankle-jerk (Achilles), gastrocnemius soleus, S1. Which nerve?

Tibial nerve

29

Knee-jerk reflex
Tapping the ligament activates ......... ........ in the quadriceps. ........... impulses from the spindles travel in the ......... ....... to the .......... segments of the spinal cord.

Muscle spindles
Afferent
Femoral nerve
L2-L4

30

Knee jerk reflex
efferent impulses are then transmitted via ...... ....... in the ....... nerve to the quadriceps, resulting in a jerk- like contraction
of the muscle and extension of the leg at the knee
joint.

Motor fibres
Femoral

31

Divisions of the spinal cord white matter containing.......

Dorsal funiculus ( dorsal column)
Lateral funiculus
Ventral funiculus

32

Dorsal column contains what two structures?

Fasiculus gracilis- Found at all cord levels
Fasciculus cuneatus- Only found at C1-T6

33

Dorsal fasciculi
Mainly ........... primary ........ fibres from ....................... of body to CNS. .

Ascending
Afferent
Mechanoreceptors

34

Dorsal column fibres synapse in nucleus gracilis or nucleus cuneatus in the .......... ...........?

Caudal medulla

35

Dorsal column – medial lemniscus pathway
• 2nd order fibres arise from ........ ....... ....... and form the ......... ......... which projects through the brainstem and terminates in the thalamus.

dorsal column nuclei
medial lemniscus

36

Dorsal column – medial lemniscus pathway
• 3rd order fibres arise in ..........(ventral posterolateral nucleus) and ascend to synapse in ........ ......... (primary somatosensory cortex).

Thalamus
postcentral gyrus

37

Dorsal ascending tracts
Concerned with sensory function. Convey information from ......... And ...... to the brain.

Trunk
Climbs

38

Fasciculus cuneatus
Sensory axons from ....... ........

Upper extremities

39

Fasciculus gracilis
Sensory axons from ........ .........

Lower extremities

40

Fasciculus gracilis
• Carries fibres conveying conscious................ and ......... ........ .......from the ...........

PROPRIOCEPTION
FINE CUTANEOUS TOUCH
LOWER LIMB

41

Fasciculus cuneatus
• Carries fibres conveying conscious................. and ....... ......... ...... from the ........ ........

PROPRIOCEPTION
FINE CUTANEOUS TOUCH
UPPER LIMB

42

Fasciculus cuneatus is present in which spinal cord segments

Only present in spinal cord segments C5-T1.

43

Anterolateral ascending tracts
Concerned with .......... function.
Convey information from ..... and ..... to the brain.

Sensory
Trunk
Limbs

44

Anterior spinothalamic tract conveys ....... ........sensation

Light touch

45

Lateral spinothalamic tract conveys which three things?

itch, pain & temperature

46

Spinothalamic tract
•............... tract. Conveys information about pain and temperature.
• 1st order neuron sense ......../......... and end in posterior horn.

ASCENDING
Pain/ temperature

47

Spinothalamic tract
2nd order neurons cross the ........... and form the spinothalamic tract that ascends to the ....... nucleus of the thalamus.

Midline
VPL

48

3rd order neurons project to .............. cortex (postcentral gyrus)

Somatosensory

49

Lateral ascending tracts
Concerned with sensory function.Convey information from trunk and limbs to the brain. Contains which two tracts?

Anterior spinocerebellar tract
Posterior spinocerebellar tract

50

Spinocerebellar tracts
• Unconscious co-ordination of motor activities.
• Convey ........... impulses from
muscles/tendons/joints to the ...............

Afferent
Cerebellum

51

VENTRAL spinocerebellar tract fibres ascend .............. to enter cerebellum through ......... ............ ...........?

CONTRA- & IPSILATERALLY
SUPERIOR CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE.

52

DORSAL spinocerebellar tract fibres ascend.............. and enter cerebellum through ......... ........... ..........

IPSILATERALLY
INFERIOR CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE.

53

Anterior spinocerebellar enters through ........... .......... .........

superior cerebellar peduncle.

54

Posterior spinocerebellar enters through ........ ........ .......

inferior cerebellar peduncle.

55

Destruction of DORSAL column => loss of proprioception and ..............causing .............. (incoordination of muscular activity)

kinesthesia
Ataxia

56

Summary of sensory pathways
• Proprioception, vibration, light touch ascend through ......... ........
• Pain and temperature information ascend through ........... ...........
• Decussate before passing through brainstem in ............ ....... then on to thalamus and terminate in ............. ......... ...........

dorsal column.
anterolateral pathways.
medial lemniscus
primary somatosensory cortex.

57

Corticospinal tract
• Collection of fibres that descend from cell bodies in the ........ .......... of the .......... .......... and terminate in the spinal cord.
• Corticospinal axons decussate (cross the midline).

Motor areas
Corticospinal tract
Cerebral cortex

58

Corticospinal tract
Damage to one cerebral hemisphere will results in .............. ......... and weakness in the.............. arm and leg.
• Myelination of corticospinal tracts not complete until end of ....... year of postnatal life.

somatosensory deficit
contralateral
2nd year

59

Lateral corticospinal tract
• “Pyramidal tract”
• Concerned with ......... ........ ........ .......... (primarily of digits and upper limb).

volitional skilled motor activity

60

Lateral corticospinal tract
Originates from the premotor, precentral motor and ............ ......... .........

Postcentral sensory cortex

61

Lateral corticospinal tract
Terminates via ............ on ........ horn motor neurons and sensory neurons of ........ horn.

interneurons
Ventral
Dorsal

62

Anterior corticospinal tract
• Formed by descending fibres that ......... decussate at the pyramids.
• Concerned with control of ....... muscles.
• Synapses with ......... ........ ........ in ......... horn of spinal cord grey matter.

Don't
Axial
lower motor neurons
Anterior

63

Rubrospinal tract
• Arises in ....... ....... ...... of the midbrain.
• Plays a role in control of ........ .......
• Anterior to .......... .......... tract.

contralateral red nucleus
flexor tone
lateral corticospinal

64

Vestibulospinal tract
• Originates in ......... nucleus.
• Found at ....... spinal cord levels.
• Plays role in control of ........
• Located in ........ ......

Vestibular
All
Extensor tone
ventral funiculus

65

Tracts that control movement of limbs:

 Lateral corticospinal
 Rubrospinal

66

Control movement of trunk (posture & balance), head & neck orientation:

 Anterior corticospinal
 Vestibulospinal
 Reticulospinal
 Tectospinal

67

CNS = brain + ........
PNS = cranial + .........

spinal cord
spinal nerves

68

Ventral ramus = ........... body
Dorsal ramus = .......... body

anterolateral
posterior

69

Anatomy of spinal nerve
• ...... pairs of spinal nerves.
• Dorsal (sensory, afferent) &ventral (motor, efferent) rootlets unite in ...... ....... ........

• Part of PNS.

31
dural root sleeve.

70

Anatomy of spinal nerve
• Emerge from .......... foramina.

intervertebral

71

Spinal nerves Contain axons of:
• Generalsomatic afferent
• Generalsomatic ..........
• Generalvisceral afferent
• ................,.. efferent

efferent
Generalvisceral

72

Dermatome
• Area of skin supplied by a ........ spinal nerve (coming from single spinal cord segment).

Single

73

Somites = ..... (bone), ......... (muscle),........ (skin).
• Each spinal nerve retains it relationship with its somite during development.

sclerotome
myotome
dermatome

74

Important dermatomes
• Upper arm (lateral surface): C5
• Thumb: C6
• Middle finger:?????
• Little finger:????
• Nipple: T4
• Umbilicus: T10
• Big toe:?????
• Heel:??????
• Back of thigh:?????

C7
C8
L5
S1
S2

75

Dorsal root lesions will lead to ........ disturbances in dermatomes.

sensory

76

Ventral root lesions will lead to ....... disturbances = weakness (paresis) because muscles usually receive innervation from....... segments.

motor
several

77

Spinal nerve root irritation
• Pain in affected ..........
• ......... losses in affected dermatome.

dermatome
Sensory

78

Spinal nerve root irritation
Motor deficits in “..........”
muscles.
• ......... associated with affected segment are diminished or absent.

indicator
Reflexes