Cognition, Consciousness, And Language Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cognition, Consciousness, And Language Deck (55):
1

Describe the information processing model.

States that the brain encodes, stores, and retrieves information much like a computer

2

What influences cognitive development?

Brain maturation, culture, genes and environment

3

What are the four stages of Piaget's cognitive development?

1. Sensorimotor
2. Pre-operational
3. Concrete operational
4. Formal operational

4

What is the sensorimotor stage?

Focuses on manipulating the environment to meet physical needs through circular reactions. Object permanence ends this stage

5

What is the preoperational stage?

Focuses on symbolic thinking, egocentrism, and centration

6

What is the concrete operational stage?

Focuses on understanding the feelings of others and manipulating physical (concrete) objects

7

What is the formal operational stage?

Focuses on abstract thought and problem-solving

8

Which biological factors affect cognition?

Organic brain disorders, genetic and chromosomal conditions, metabolic derangements and drug use

9

What are the steps of problem solving?

1. Identification and understanding of the problem
2. Generation of potential solutions
3. Testing of potential solutions
4. Evaluation of results

10

What is a mental set?

A pattern of approach for a given problem.

11

What would an inappropriate mental set do to problem solving?

Could negatively impact problem solving

12

What is functional fixedness?

The tendency to use objects only in the way they are normally utilized, which may create barriers to problem-solving

13

What are the different types of problem solving?

1. Trial and error
2. Algorithms
3. Deductive reasoning
4. Inductive reasoning

14

What are heuristics?

Short cuts or rules of thumb used to make decisions

15

What are biases?

They exist when an experimenter or decision maker is unable to objectively evaluate information

16

What is intuition?

"Gut feeling" regarding a particular decision. However, intuition can often be attributed to experience with similar situations.

17

What are the seven areas of intelligence proposed in Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences?

1. Linguistic
2. Logical-mathematical
3. Musical
4. Visual-spatial
5. Bodily-kinesthetic
6. Interpersonal
7. Interpersonal

18

What are the states of consciousness?

1. Alertness
2. Sleep
3. Dreaming
4. Altered states of consciousness

19

What is alertness?

The state of being awake and able to think, perceive, process, and express information.

20

What types of waves are predominant in the state of alertness?

Beta and alpha waves

21

What is stage one of sleep?

Light sleep and dominated by theta waves

22

What is stage two of sleep?

Slightly deeper sleep and includes theta waves, sleep spindles, and K complexes.

23

What waves are predominant in stages 3 and 4?

Delta waves

24

What is R.E.M. Sleep?

Rapid eye movement; sometimes called paradoxical sleep because the mind appears to be awake but the person is asleep.

25

Describe the sleep cycle.

Usually lasts about 90 minutes for adults. Normal cycle is 1,2,3,4,3,2, R.E.M.

26

When is REM more frequent?

In the mornings

27

What hormone results in sleepiness?

Melatonin, which is released by the pineal gland in response to changes in light

28

Which hormone helps with wakefulness?

Cortisol

29

When does most dreaming occur?

REM sleep

30

What sleep disorders are included in dyssomnias?

Insomnia, narcolepsy, sleep apnea, and sleep deprivation.

31

Which sleep disorders are included as parasomnias?

Night terrors and sleepwalking

32

What is hypnosis?

A state of consciousness in which individuals appear to be in control of their normal faculties but are in a highly suggestible state.

33

What is meditation?

Involves s quieting of the mind and is often used for relief of anxiety

34

What are the groups of consciousness altering drugs?

Depressants, stimulants, opiates, and hallucinogens

35

What are depressants?

They promote or mimic GABA activity in the brain. They include alcohol, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines.

36

What are stimulants?

They increase dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin concentrations at the synaptic cleft. These include, amphetamines, cocaine, and ecstasy.

37

What are opiates and opioids?

They are prescription pain medications such as oxycodone and hydrocodone.

38

What is marijuana classified as?

Depressant, stimulant, and has hallucinogenic effects.

39

What part of the brain is associated with drug addiction?

The Mesolimbic pathway

40

What is selective attention?

Allows one to pay attention to a particular stimulus while determining if additional stimuli in the background require attention.

41

What is divided attention?

It uses automatic processing to pay attention to multiple activities at once

42

What are the components of language?

1. Phonology
2. Morphology
3. Semantics
4. Syntax
5. Pragmatics

43

What is phonology?

Refers to the actual sound of speech

44

What is morphology?

Refers to the building blocks of words

45

What are semantics?

The meaning of words

46

What is syntax?

The rules for dictating word order

47

What are pragmatics?

Refers to the changes in language delivery depending on context

48

What is the nativist (biological) theory of language?

Explains language acquisition as being innate and controlled by the language acquisition device

49

What is the learning (behaviorist) theory of language?

Explains language acquisition as being controlled by operant conditioning and reinforcement by parents and caregivers

50

What is the social interaction it's theory of language?

It explains language acquisition as being caused by a motivation to communicate and interact with others

51

What is the whorfian hypothesis?

States that the lens through which we view and interpret the world is created by language

52

Where are speech areas found in the brain?

The dominant hemisphere which is usually the left

53

What is Broca's area for?

Controlling motor function of speech

54

Where is language comprehension controlled?

Wernicke's area

55

What connects Broca's area to wernickes area?

The arcuate fasciculus