Flashcards in Cognition, Consciousness, And Language Deck (55):
Describe the information processing model.
States that the brain encodes, stores, and retrieves information much like a computer
What influences cognitive development?
Brain maturation, culture, genes and environment
What are the four stages of Piaget's cognitive development?
3. Concrete operational
4. Formal operational
What is the sensorimotor stage?
Focuses on manipulating the environment to meet physical needs through circular reactions. Object permanence ends this stage
What is the preoperational stage?
Focuses on symbolic thinking, egocentrism, and centration
What is the concrete operational stage?
Focuses on understanding the feelings of others and manipulating physical (concrete) objects
What is the formal operational stage?
Focuses on abstract thought and problem-solving
Which biological factors affect cognition?
Organic brain disorders, genetic and chromosomal conditions, metabolic derangements and drug use
What are the steps of problem solving?
1. Identification and understanding of the problem
2. Generation of potential solutions
3. Testing of potential solutions
4. Evaluation of results
What is a mental set?
A pattern of approach for a given problem.
What would an inappropriate mental set do to problem solving?
Could negatively impact problem solving
What is functional fixedness?
The tendency to use objects only in the way they are normally utilized, which may create barriers to problem-solving
What are the different types of problem solving?
1. Trial and error
3. Deductive reasoning
4. Inductive reasoning
What are heuristics?
Short cuts or rules of thumb used to make decisions
What are biases?
They exist when an experimenter or decision maker is unable to objectively evaluate information
What is intuition?
"Gut feeling" regarding a particular decision. However, intuition can often be attributed to experience with similar situations.
What are the seven areas of intelligence proposed in Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences?
What are the states of consciousness?
4. Altered states of consciousness
What is alertness?
The state of being awake and able to think, perceive, process, and express information.
What types of waves are predominant in the state of alertness?
Beta and alpha waves
What is stage one of sleep?
Light sleep and dominated by theta waves
What is stage two of sleep?
Slightly deeper sleep and includes theta waves, sleep spindles, and K complexes.
What waves are predominant in stages 3 and 4?
What is R.E.M. Sleep?
Rapid eye movement; sometimes called paradoxical sleep because the mind appears to be awake but the person is asleep.
Describe the sleep cycle.
Usually lasts about 90 minutes for adults. Normal cycle is 1,2,3,4,3,2, R.E.M.
When is REM more frequent?
In the mornings
What hormone results in sleepiness?
Melatonin, which is released by the pineal gland in response to changes in light
Which hormone helps with wakefulness?
When does most dreaming occur?
What sleep disorders are included in dyssomnias?
Insomnia, narcolepsy, sleep apnea, and sleep deprivation.
Which sleep disorders are included as parasomnias?
Night terrors and sleepwalking
What is hypnosis?
A state of consciousness in which individuals appear to be in control of their normal faculties but are in a highly suggestible state.
What is meditation?
Involves s quieting of the mind and is often used for relief of anxiety
What are the groups of consciousness altering drugs?
Depressants, stimulants, opiates, and hallucinogens
What are depressants?
They promote or mimic GABA activity in the brain. They include alcohol, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines.
What are stimulants?
They increase dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin concentrations at the synaptic cleft. These include, amphetamines, cocaine, and ecstasy.
What are opiates and opioids?
They are prescription pain medications such as oxycodone and hydrocodone.
What is marijuana classified as?
Depressant, stimulant, and has hallucinogenic effects.
What part of the brain is associated with drug addiction?
The Mesolimbic pathway
What is selective attention?
Allows one to pay attention to a particular stimulus while determining if additional stimuli in the background require attention.
What is divided attention?
It uses automatic processing to pay attention to multiple activities at once
What are the components of language?
What is phonology?
Refers to the actual sound of speech
What is morphology?
Refers to the building blocks of words
What are semantics?
The meaning of words
What is syntax?
The rules for dictating word order
What are pragmatics?
Refers to the changes in language delivery depending on context
What is the nativist (biological) theory of language?
Explains language acquisition as being innate and controlled by the language acquisition device
What is the learning (behaviorist) theory of language?
Explains language acquisition as being controlled by operant conditioning and reinforcement by parents and caregivers
What is the social interaction it's theory of language?
It explains language acquisition as being caused by a motivation to communicate and interact with others
What is the whorfian hypothesis?
States that the lens through which we view and interpret the world is created by language
Where are speech areas found in the brain?
The dominant hemisphere which is usually the left
What is Broca's area for?
Controlling motor function of speech
Where is language comprehension controlled?