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Flashcards in Identity And Personality Deck (40):
1

What is self-concept?

The sum of the ways in which we describe ourselves: in the present, who we used to be and who we might be in the future

2

What are identities?

The individual components of our self concept related to the groups in which we belong

3

Give some examples of identities

Religious affiliation, sexual orientation, ethnic and national affiliations

4

What is self esteem?

Describes our evaluation of ourselves

5

Generally, what produces a higher self esteem?

The closer our actual self is to our ideal self and our ought self

6

What is self efficacy?

The degree to which we see ourselves as being capable at a given skill or in a given situation

7

What is locus of control?

A self evaluation that refers to the way we characterize the influences in our lives

8

What is the zone of proximal development?

The skills that a child has not yet mastered and require a more knowledgeable other to accomplish.

9

What is a reference group?

The group to which we compare ourselves

10

How does the psychoanalytic perspective view personailty?

As resulting from unconscious urges and desires

11

What are the three basic types of traits?

1. Cardinal
2. Central
3. Secondary

12

What are cardinal traits?

The traits around which a person organizes his or her life

13

What are central traits?

Represent major characteristics of the personality

14

What are secondary traits?

More personal characteristics and are limited in occurrence

15

What is the social-cognitive perspective?

That individuals interact with their environment in a cycle called reciprocal determinism

16

What is the behaviorist perspective?

Personality can be described as the behaviors one has learned from prior rewards and punishments

17

What is the biological theory of personalities?

Claim that behavior can be explained as a result of genetic expression

18

What are the stages of Freud's psychosexual development?

1. Oral
2. Anal
3. Phallic
4. Latency
5. Genital

19

What is the oral stage?

Libidinal energy is centered on the mouth

20

What is the anal stage?

Toilet training occurs at this time

21

What is the phallic stage?

Oedipal or Electra conflict is resolved during this stage

22

What is the latency stage?

Libido is largely sublimated during this stage

23

What is the genital stage?

Begins at puberty and lasts into adulthood, this is when heterosexual relationships are formed

24

What is the trust vs. mistrust stage?

0 to 1 year; can I trust the world?

25

What is the autonomy vs. shame and doubt stage?

1 to 3 years; is it okay to be me?

26

What is the initiative vs. guilt stage?

3 to 6 years; is it okay for me to do, move and act?

27

What is the industry vs. inferiority stage?

6 to 12 years; can I make it in the world of people and things?

28

What is the identity vs. role confusion?

12 to 20 years; who am I? What can I be?

29

What is the intimacy vs. isolation stage?

20 to 40 years; can I love?

30

What is generativity vs. stagnation stage?

40 to 65 years; can I make my life count?

31

What is integrity vs. despair stage?

65 to death; is it okay to have been me?

32

What is repression?

Unconsciously removing an idea or feeling from consciousness

33

What is suppression?

Consciously removing an idea or feeling from consciousness

34

What is regression?

Returning to an earlier stage of development

35

What is reaction formation?

An unacceptable impulse is transformed into its opposite

36

What is projection?

Attribution of wishes, thoughts, desires or emotions to someone else

37

What is rationalization?

Justification of attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors

38

What is displacement?

Changing the target of an emotion, while the feelings remain the same

39

What is sublimation?

Channeling of an unacceptable impulse in a socially acceptable direction

40

What are the Bug Five Traits of Personality?

1. Openness
2. Conscientiousness
3. Extraversion
4. Agreeableness
5. Neuroticism