Flashcards in Identity And Personality Deck (40):
What is self-concept?
The sum of the ways in which we describe ourselves: in the present, who we used to be and who we might be in the future
What are identities?
The individual components of our self concept related to the groups in which we belong
Give some examples of identities
Religious affiliation, sexual orientation, ethnic and national affiliations
What is self esteem?
Describes our evaluation of ourselves
Generally, what produces a higher self esteem?
The closer our actual self is to our ideal self and our ought self
What is self efficacy?
The degree to which we see ourselves as being capable at a given skill or in a given situation
What is locus of control?
A self evaluation that refers to the way we characterize the influences in our lives
What is the zone of proximal development?
The skills that a child has not yet mastered and require a more knowledgeable other to accomplish.
What is a reference group?
The group to which we compare ourselves
How does the psychoanalytic perspective view personailty?
As resulting from unconscious urges and desires
What are the three basic types of traits?
What are cardinal traits?
The traits around which a person organizes his or her life
What are central traits?
Represent major characteristics of the personality
What are secondary traits?
More personal characteristics and are limited in occurrence
What is the social-cognitive perspective?
That individuals interact with their environment in a cycle called reciprocal determinism
What is the behaviorist perspective?
Personality can be described as the behaviors one has learned from prior rewards and punishments
What is the biological theory of personalities?
Claim that behavior can be explained as a result of genetic expression
What are the stages of Freud's psychosexual development?
What is the oral stage?
Libidinal energy is centered on the mouth
What is the anal stage?
Toilet training occurs at this time
What is the phallic stage?
Oedipal or Electra conflict is resolved during this stage
What is the latency stage?
Libido is largely sublimated during this stage
What is the genital stage?
Begins at puberty and lasts into adulthood, this is when heterosexual relationships are formed
What is the trust vs. mistrust stage?
0 to 1 year; can I trust the world?
What is the autonomy vs. shame and doubt stage?
1 to 3 years; is it okay to be me?
What is the initiative vs. guilt stage?
3 to 6 years; is it okay for me to do, move and act?
What is the industry vs. inferiority stage?
6 to 12 years; can I make it in the world of people and things?
What is the identity vs. role confusion?
12 to 20 years; who am I? What can I be?
What is the intimacy vs. isolation stage?
20 to 40 years; can I love?
What is generativity vs. stagnation stage?
40 to 65 years; can I make my life count?
What is integrity vs. despair stage?
65 to death; is it okay to have been me?
What is repression?
Unconsciously removing an idea or feeling from consciousness
What is suppression?
Consciously removing an idea or feeling from consciousness
What is regression?
Returning to an earlier stage of development
What is reaction formation?
An unacceptable impulse is transformed into its opposite
What is projection?
Attribution of wishes, thoughts, desires or emotions to someone else
What is rationalization?
Justification of attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors
What is displacement?
Changing the target of an emotion, while the feelings remain the same
What is sublimation?
Channeling of an unacceptable impulse in a socially acceptable direction