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Flashcards in Social Structure And Demographics Deck (79):
1

What is macrosociology?

Focuses on large groups and social structure

2

What is microsociology?

It focuses on small groups and the individual

3

What is social structure?

It's a system of people within a society organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships

4

What is functionalism or functional analysis?

The study of the structure and function of each part of society

5

What does the term function refer to?

The beneficial consequences of people's actions

6

What is the opposite of function?

Dysfunction, which is harmful consequences of people's actions as they undermine a social system's equilibrium

7

What are manifest and latent functions?

A manifest function is an action that is intended to help some part of a system while a latent function is an unintended positive consequence from the manifest function

8

What is defiance?

It refers to an act or behavior that goes against social norms

9

Explain conflict theory

It focuses on how power differentials are created and how these differentials contribute to the maintenance of social order

10

What is symbolic interactionism?

It's the study of the ways individuals interact through a shared understanding of words, gestures, and other symbols

11

What are symbols?

Things to which we attach meaning

12

What is social constructionism?

It focuses on how individuals put together their social reality

13

What is the rational choice theory?

It focuses on decision making in an individual and attempts to reduce this process to a careful consideration of benefits and harms to the individual.

14

What is the exchange theory?

It says that an individual will carry out certain behaviors because of anticipated rewards and will avoid certain behaviors because of anticipated punishments

15

What is the feminist theory?

It seeks to explain the social inequalities that exist on the basis of gender such as the subordination of women through social structures and institutional discrimination

16

What is gender role?

It refers to the behaviors expected of a given gender

17

Describe what sexual inequality is.

Differential expectations of behavior between men and women

18

What does it mean to be objectified?

It means to be viewed as a sexual object rather than a person

19

What is financial inequality?

That women are frequently underpaid less for equal work and less promoted in the work place

20

What is the phenomenon known as glass ceiling?

That women are unable to receive as many promotions and have a more difficult time attaining top-level administrative positions within a company

21

What are social institutions?

Well-established social structures that dictate certain behavior or relationships are accepted as a fundamental part of culture. They regulate the behavior of individuals in core areas of society

22

What is family?

A social institution that is influence by a number of different factors including culture, value systems, beliefs, practices, gender, age, race, ethnicity, and others.

23

What is teacher expectancy?

The idea that teachers tend to get what they expect from their students

24

What is religion?

A pattern of social activities organized around a set of beliefs and practices that seek to address the meaning of existence

25

What is religiosity?

Refers to how religious one considers him or herself to be and includes strength of religious beliefs, engagement in religious practices, and attitudes about religion itself.

26

What is a sect?

A religious group that has chosen to break off from the parent religion.

27

What is a democracy?

It allows every citizen a political vote, usually through electing representatives to office

28

What is a monarchy?

They have a royal ruler (king or queen) although the rulers powers may be significantly limited by the presence of a constitution and parliamentary system

29

What is a dictatorship?

A system where a single person holds power, and usually includes mechanisms to quell treats to this power

30

What is a theocracy?

A system where power is held by religious leaders

31

What is a capitalist economy?

One that focuses on free market trade and laissez-faire policies, where success or failure in business is primarily driven by consumerism with as little intervention from central governing bodies as possible

32

What is a socialist economy?

It treats large industries as collective, shared businesses, and compensation is provided based on the work contribution of each individual into the system

33

What does medicalized mean?

That something is defined and treated as medical conditions

34

What are the four key tenets of medical ethics?

1. Beneficence
2. Nonmaleficence
3. Respect for patient autonomy
4. Justice

35

What is beneficence?

The physician has a responsibility to act in the patients best interest

36

What is nonmaleficence?

Do no harm. The physician has a responsibility to avoid treatments or interventions in which the potential harm outweighs the potential for benefit

37

What is respect for patient autonomy?

The physician has a responsibility to respect the pateients decisions and choices about their own healthcare

38

What does justice mean?

The physician has a responsibility to treat similar patients with similar care and to distribute healthcare resources fairly

39

What is culture?

It is defined as encompassing the entire lifestyle for a given group

40

What are artifacts?

Material items that they make, posses and value

41

What is material culture?

Explore the meaning of objects of a given society such as physical items like artwork, emblems, clothing, jewelry, foods, buildings, and tools.

42

What is symbolic culture?

It focuses on the ideas that represent a group of people. It can be encoded in mottos, songs, or catchphrases, or may simply be themes that are pervasive in the culture

43

What are values?

What a person deems important in life, which dictates one's ethical principles and standards of behavior

44

What are beliefs?

It is something an individual accepts to be truth

45

What are norms?

Societal rules that define the boundaries of acceptable behavior

46

What is a ritual?

A formalized ceremony that usually involves specific material objects, symbolism, and additional mandates on acceptable behavior

47

What are demographics?

The statistics of populations and are mathematically applications of sociology

48

What is ageism?

Prejudice or discrimination on the basis of a persons age

49

What is gender?

A social construct that corresponds to the behavioral, cultural, or psychological traits typically associated with biological sexes

50

What is gender inequality?

Intentional or unintentional empowerment of one gender to the detriment of the other

51

What is gender segregation?

Separation of individuals based on sex

52

What is race?

The social construct based on phenotypic differences between groups of people

53

What is radicalization?

The definition or establishment of a group as a particular race

54

What is the racial formation theory?

States that racial identity is fluid and dependent on concurrent political, economic, and social factors

55

What is ethnicity?

It sorts people by cultural factors, including language, nationality, religion, and other factors

56

What is symbolic ethnicity?

A specific connection to ones ethnicity in which ethnic symbols and identity remain important, even when ethnic identity does not okay a significant role in everyday life

57

What is sexual orientation?

The direction of ones sexual interest toward members of the same, opposite, or both sexes

58

What is heterosexual?

Attraction to individuals of the opposite sex

59

What is bisexual?

Attraction to members of both sexes

60

What is homosexual?

Attraction to members of the same sex

61

What is demographic shifts?

Changes in the make up of a population over time

62

What is fertility rate?

Refers to the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime in a population

63

What is the mortality rate?

Refers to the number of deaths in a population per unit of time. It is usually measure in deaths per 1000 people per year

64

What is immigration?

Movement into a new geographic space

65

What is emigration?

Movement away from a geographic space

66

What are pull factors?

Positive attributes of the new location that attract the immigrant

67

What are push factors?

Negative attributes of the old location that encourage the immigrant to leave

68

What is a demographic shift?

General terms for changes in population make up over time

69

What is demographic transition?

Specifics examples of demographic shift referring to changes in birth and death rates in a country as it develops from a preindustrial to industrial economic system

70

What is the Malthusian theory?

Focuses on how the exponential growth of a population can outpace growth of the food supply and lead to social degradation and disorder

71

What are social movements?

They are organized either to promote or to resist social change

72

What is gender segregation?

Separation of individuals based on perceived gender

73

What is relative deprivation?

Decreases in resources, representation, or agency relative to the past or to the whole of society

74

Social movements that promote social change are termed...

Proactive

75

Social movements that resist social change are called...

Reactive

76

What is globalization?

The process of integrating the global economy with free trade and tapping of foreign markets

77

What is urbanization?

Dense areas of population creating a pull of migration. They are cities that are formed as individuals move into and establish residency in these new urban centers

78

What are ghettos?

Areas where specific racial, ethnic, or religious minorities are concentrated, usually due to social or economic inequities

79

What is a slum?

Extremely densely populated area of a city with low-quality, often informal housing and sanitation