Flashcards in Social Structure And Demographics Deck (79):
What is macrosociology?
Focuses on large groups and social structure
What is microsociology?
It focuses on small groups and the individual
What is social structure?
It's a system of people within a society organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships
What is functionalism or functional analysis?
The study of the structure and function of each part of society
What does the term function refer to?
The beneficial consequences of people's actions
What is the opposite of function?
Dysfunction, which is harmful consequences of people's actions as they undermine a social system's equilibrium
What are manifest and latent functions?
A manifest function is an action that is intended to help some part of a system while a latent function is an unintended positive consequence from the manifest function
What is defiance?
It refers to an act or behavior that goes against social norms
Explain conflict theory
It focuses on how power differentials are created and how these differentials contribute to the maintenance of social order
What is symbolic interactionism?
It's the study of the ways individuals interact through a shared understanding of words, gestures, and other symbols
What are symbols?
Things to which we attach meaning
What is social constructionism?
It focuses on how individuals put together their social reality
What is the rational choice theory?
It focuses on decision making in an individual and attempts to reduce this process to a careful consideration of benefits and harms to the individual.
What is the exchange theory?
It says that an individual will carry out certain behaviors because of anticipated rewards and will avoid certain behaviors because of anticipated punishments
What is the feminist theory?
It seeks to explain the social inequalities that exist on the basis of gender such as the subordination of women through social structures and institutional discrimination
What is gender role?
It refers to the behaviors expected of a given gender
Describe what sexual inequality is.
Differential expectations of behavior between men and women
What does it mean to be objectified?
It means to be viewed as a sexual object rather than a person
What is financial inequality?
That women are frequently underpaid less for equal work and less promoted in the work place
What is the phenomenon known as glass ceiling?
That women are unable to receive as many promotions and have a more difficult time attaining top-level administrative positions within a company
What are social institutions?
Well-established social structures that dictate certain behavior or relationships are accepted as a fundamental part of culture. They regulate the behavior of individuals in core areas of society
What is family?
A social institution that is influence by a number of different factors including culture, value systems, beliefs, practices, gender, age, race, ethnicity, and others.
What is teacher expectancy?
The idea that teachers tend to get what they expect from their students
What is religion?
A pattern of social activities organized around a set of beliefs and practices that seek to address the meaning of existence
What is religiosity?
Refers to how religious one considers him or herself to be and includes strength of religious beliefs, engagement in religious practices, and attitudes about religion itself.
What is a sect?
A religious group that has chosen to break off from the parent religion.
What is a democracy?
It allows every citizen a political vote, usually through electing representatives to office
What is a monarchy?
They have a royal ruler (king or queen) although the rulers powers may be significantly limited by the presence of a constitution and parliamentary system
What is a dictatorship?
A system where a single person holds power, and usually includes mechanisms to quell treats to this power
What is a theocracy?
A system where power is held by religious leaders
What is a capitalist economy?
One that focuses on free market trade and laissez-faire policies, where success or failure in business is primarily driven by consumerism with as little intervention from central governing bodies as possible
What is a socialist economy?
It treats large industries as collective, shared businesses, and compensation is provided based on the work contribution of each individual into the system
What does medicalized mean?
That something is defined and treated as medical conditions
What are the four key tenets of medical ethics?
3. Respect for patient autonomy
What is beneficence?
The physician has a responsibility to act in the patients best interest
What is nonmaleficence?
Do no harm. The physician has a responsibility to avoid treatments or interventions in which the potential harm outweighs the potential for benefit
What is respect for patient autonomy?
The physician has a responsibility to respect the pateients decisions and choices about their own healthcare
What does justice mean?
The physician has a responsibility to treat similar patients with similar care and to distribute healthcare resources fairly
What is culture?
It is defined as encompassing the entire lifestyle for a given group
What are artifacts?
Material items that they make, posses and value
What is material culture?
Explore the meaning of objects of a given society such as physical items like artwork, emblems, clothing, jewelry, foods, buildings, and tools.
What is symbolic culture?
It focuses on the ideas that represent a group of people. It can be encoded in mottos, songs, or catchphrases, or may simply be themes that are pervasive in the culture
What are values?
What a person deems important in life, which dictates one's ethical principles and standards of behavior
What are beliefs?
It is something an individual accepts to be truth
What are norms?
Societal rules that define the boundaries of acceptable behavior
What is a ritual?
A formalized ceremony that usually involves specific material objects, symbolism, and additional mandates on acceptable behavior
What are demographics?
The statistics of populations and are mathematically applications of sociology
What is ageism?
Prejudice or discrimination on the basis of a persons age
What is gender?
A social construct that corresponds to the behavioral, cultural, or psychological traits typically associated with biological sexes
What is gender inequality?
Intentional or unintentional empowerment of one gender to the detriment of the other
What is gender segregation?
Separation of individuals based on sex
What is race?
The social construct based on phenotypic differences between groups of people
What is radicalization?
The definition or establishment of a group as a particular race
What is the racial formation theory?
States that racial identity is fluid and dependent on concurrent political, economic, and social factors
What is ethnicity?
It sorts people by cultural factors, including language, nationality, religion, and other factors
What is symbolic ethnicity?
A specific connection to ones ethnicity in which ethnic symbols and identity remain important, even when ethnic identity does not okay a significant role in everyday life
What is sexual orientation?
The direction of ones sexual interest toward members of the same, opposite, or both sexes
What is heterosexual?
Attraction to individuals of the opposite sex
What is bisexual?
Attraction to members of both sexes
What is homosexual?
Attraction to members of the same sex
What is demographic shifts?
Changes in the make up of a population over time
What is fertility rate?
Refers to the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime in a population
What is the mortality rate?
Refers to the number of deaths in a population per unit of time. It is usually measure in deaths per 1000 people per year
What is immigration?
Movement into a new geographic space
What is emigration?
Movement away from a geographic space
What are pull factors?
Positive attributes of the new location that attract the immigrant
What are push factors?
Negative attributes of the old location that encourage the immigrant to leave
What is a demographic shift?
General terms for changes in population make up over time
What is demographic transition?
Specifics examples of demographic shift referring to changes in birth and death rates in a country as it develops from a preindustrial to industrial economic system
What is the Malthusian theory?
Focuses on how the exponential growth of a population can outpace growth of the food supply and lead to social degradation and disorder
What are social movements?
They are organized either to promote or to resist social change
What is gender segregation?
Separation of individuals based on perceived gender
What is relative deprivation?
Decreases in resources, representation, or agency relative to the past or to the whole of society
Social movements that promote social change are termed...
Social movements that resist social change are called...
What is globalization?
The process of integrating the global economy with free trade and tapping of foreign markets
What is urbanization?
Dense areas of population creating a pull of migration. They are cities that are formed as individuals move into and establish residency in these new urban centers
What are ghettos?
Areas where specific racial, ethnic, or religious minorities are concentrated, usually due to social or economic inequities