Flashcards in Psychological Disorders Deck (40):
What is the biomedical approach to psychological disorders?
Takes into account only the physical and medical causes of a psychological disorder
What is the biopsychosocial approach to psychological disorders?
Considers the relative contributions of biological, psychological and social components to an individuals disorder.
What is used to diagnose disorders?
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders which categorizes mental disorders based on symptom patterns
What is schizophrenia?
A prototypical disorder with psychosis as a feature. It has both positive and negative symptoms
What are the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
Positive- add something to behavior, cognition, or affect and include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and disorganized behavior
Negative- the loss of something from behavior, cognition, or affect and include disturbance of affect and abolition
What are depressive disorders?
Include major depressive disorder and seasonal affective disorder
What is major depressive disorder?
Obtains at least one major depressive episode
Describe persistent depressive disorder.
Is dysthymia for at least two years that does not meet criteria for major depressive disorder
What is seasonal affective disorder?
The name for major depressive disorder with seasonal onset, with depression occurring during winter months
What is a characteristic of bipolar disorders?
To have manic or hypmanic episodes
What is bipolar I disorder?
It contains at least one manic episode
What is bipolar II disorder?
Contains at least one hypomanic episodes and one major depressive episode
What is cyclothymic disorder?
Contains hypomanic episodes with dysthymia
What are anxiety disorders?
Include generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobias, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia and panic disorder
What is generalized anxiety disorder?
A disproportionate and persistent worry about many different things for the last 6 months
What are specific phobias?
Irrational fears of specific objects or situations
What is social anxiety disorder?
Anxiety due to social or performance situations
What is agoraphobia?
A fear of places or situations where it is hard for an individual to escape
What is panic disorder?
Marked by reoccurring panic attacks: intense, overwhelming fear and sympathetic nervous system activity with no clear stimulus
What is obsessive compulsive disorder?
Characterized by obsessions and compulsions
What is body dystrophin disorder?
Characterized by an unrealistic negative evaluation of ones appearance or a specific body part. The individual often takes extreme measures to correct the perceived information
What is post traumatic stress disorder?
Characterized by instruction symptoms, avoidance symptoms, negative cognitive symptoms, and arousal symptoms
What are dissociative disorders?
Includes dissociative amnesia, dissociative identity disorder and depersonalizations/derealization disorder
What is dissociative fugue?
A sudden change in location may involve the assumption of a new identity
What is dissociative amnesia?
Inability to recall past experience without an underlying neurological disorder
What is dissociative identity disorder?
Is the occurrence of two or more personalities that take control of a persons behavior
What is depersonalization/derealization disorder?
Involves feelings of detachment from the mind and body or from the environment
What is somatic symptom disorder?
Involves at least one somatic symptom, which may or may not be linked to an underlying medical condition, that causes disproportionate concern
What is illness anxiety disorder?
A preoccupation with thought about having or coming down with a serious medical condition
What is conversion disorder?
Involves unexplained symptoms affecting motor or sensory functioning and is associated with prior trauma
What are personality disorders?
Patterns of inflexible, maladaptive behavior that cause distress or impaired functioning in at least two of the following: cognition, emotions, interpersonal functioning, or impulse control.
What is paranoid PD?
Involves a pervasive distrust and suspicion of others
What is schizotypal PD?
Involves ideas of reference, magical thinking, and eccentricity
What is antisocial PD?
Involves disregard for the right of others
What is borderline PD?
Involves instability in relationships, moods, and self image
What is histrionic PD?
Involves constant attention seeking behavior
What is narcissistic PD?
Involves a grandiose sense of self importance and need for admiration
What is avoidant PD?
Involves extreme shyness and fear of rejection
What is dependent PD?
Involves a continuous need for reassurance