Flashcards in Social Interaction Deck (46):
What are statuses?
Positions in society that are used to classify individuals
What is an ascribed status?
One that is given involuntarily, due to such factors as race, ethnicity, gender, and family background
What is an achieved status?
A status that is gained as a result of ones efforts or choices, such as being a doctor
What is a master status?
It's the status by which a person is most identified. It is the most important status that the individual holds and affects all aspects of that persons life.
What does pigeon holding mean?
When we view individuals only through his or her master status without regard to any other personal characteristics
What is a role for a status?
It is a set of beliefs, values, attitudes, and norms that define expectations for those who hold the status
What is role performance?
The carrying out of behaviors associated with a given role
What is a role partner?
The person with whom one is interacting
What is a role set?
Various roles associated with a status
What is a role conflict?
Difficulty in satisfying the requirement or expectations of multiple roles
Define role strain
Difficulty in satisfying multiple requirements of the same role
What does role exit mean?
The dropping of one identity for another
What is a group?
It consists of two or more people who share similar characteristics and sense of unity
What are some common characteristics shared by groups?
Values, interests, ethnicity, social background, family ties, and political representations
What is the difference between a primary and secondary group?
1. Primary- the interactions are direct, with close bonds that provide warm, personal, and intimate relationships. They usually last long periods of time.
2. Secondary- the interactions are superficial, with few emotional bonds. They last for shorter periods of time.
What is a Dyad and a triad?
Group of two and a group of three
What is the interaction process analysis?
A technique for observing, classifying and measuring the interactions within small groups.
What does group conformity mean?
Individuals are complaint with the groups goals, even when the groups goals may be in direct contrast with the individuals goal.
What is group think?
Occurs when members begin to focus solely on ideas generated within the group, while ignoring outside ideas
What is the downfall of group think?
The group may not explore all sides of an issue and may limit the groups views. Also, it can censor the members into not expressing their beliefs
What is a network?
An observable pattern of social relationships amount individuals or groups
What is network analysis used for?
To gain understanding of the actions of individuals and groups and to study the broader social structure
What is immediate network vs. distant network?
Immediate networks are dense with strong ties and may be composed of friends whereas distant networks contain looser and weaker ties and may include acquaintances
What is an organization?
Entities that are set up to achieve specific goals and are characterized by having a structure and a culture
What are the four characteristics of a formal organization?
1. Organizations continue despite the departure of an individual member
2. They have expressed goals
3. Have enforcement procedures that seek to control the activities of their members
4. Characterized by the hierarchical allotment of formal roles or duties to members
What is a bureaucracy?
A rational system of political organization, administration, discipline and control
What is the iron law of oligarchy?
States that democratic or bureaucratic systems naturally shift to being ruled by an elite group
What is McDonaldization?
It refers to a shift in a focus toward efficiency, predictability, calculability, and control in societies
What is self presentation or impression management?
The process of displaying oneself to society through culturally accepted behaviors
What are expressed emotions?
Either verbal or nonverbal behaviors that communicate internal states
What is the basic model of emotional expression?
Established by Charles Darwin
Says that emotional expressions involves a number of components:
1. Facial expressions
4. Vocal changes
5. Physiological changes
Explain the appraisal model.
Accepts that there are biologically predetermined expressions once an emotion is experienced, but that there is a cognitive antecedent to emotional expression
What are display rules?
Cultural expectations of emotions
What is a cultural syndrome?
Shared set of beliefs, attitudes, norms, values and behaviors among members of the same shared culture that are organized around a central theme
What are the three selfs found in impression management?
1. Authentic self
2. Ideal self
3. Tactical self
What is the definition of authentic self?
It describes who the person really is, including both positive and negative attributes
What is the ideal self?
Who we would want to be under optimal characteristics
What is the tactical self?
Refers to who we market ourself to be when we adhere to others expectations of us.
What is the dramaturgical approach?
The metaphor of a theatrical performance to describe how individuals create images of themselves in various situations
What is the front stage?
Where the actor is in front of the audience, and performs according to the setting role and script in order to conform to the image he wants others to see
What is the back stage?
Where the actor is not being observed by an audience and he is free to act in ways that may not be congruent with his desired public image without have to worry about ruining his performance
What is communication?
The ability to convey information by speech, writing, signals, or behavior and is the foundation of social interaction
What is verbal communication?
The transmission of information via the use of words, whether spoken, written or signed
What is nonverbal communication?
How people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally without words. This includes facial expression, tone of voice, gestures, body position and movement, touches, and eye positioning.
What is animal behavior?
Any behavior of one animal that affects the behavior of another