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Flashcards in Cognition Note Cards Deck (38):
1

Encoding

The processing of information into the memory system

2

Storage

The process of retaining encoded information over time

3

Retrieval

The process of getting information out of memory storage

4

Parallel processing

Processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions

5

Sensory memory

The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

6

Short-term memory

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten

7

Long-term memory

The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system

8

Working memory

A newer understanding of short term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long term memory

9

Explicit memory

Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare

10

Effortful processing

Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

11

Automatic processing

Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings

12

Implicit memory

Retention independent of conscious recollection

13

Iconic memory

A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second

14

Echoic memory

A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds

15

Chunking

Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

16

Mnemonic

Memory aids; especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

17

Spacing effect

The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

18

Testing effect

Enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information

19

Shallow processing

Encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words

20

Deep processing

Encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention

21

Hippocampus

A neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage

22

Flashbulb memory

A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

23

Long-term potentiation

An increase in a cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation

24

Recall

A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill in the blank test

25

Recognition

A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test

26

Relearning

A measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again

27

Priming

The activation, often unconsciously of particular associations in memory

28

Memory

The persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information

29

Mood congruent memory

The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood

30

Serial position effect

Our tendency to recall best the last and first terms in a list

31

Anterograde amnesia

An inability to form new memories

32

Retrograde amnesia

An inability to retrieve information from one's past

33

Proactive interference

The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

34

Retroactive interference

The disruptive effect on new learning on the recall of old information

35

Repression

The basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

36

Misinformation

Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event

37

Source amnesia

Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined, the heart of many false memories

38

Deja vu

The eerie sense that I've experienced this before