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Flashcards in Developmental Psych Deck (101):
1

Zygote

The fertilized egg

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Embryo

The developing human organism from about two weeks after fertilization through the second month

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Fetus

Developing human organism from nine weeks after conception to birth

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Teratogens

Agents such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

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Fetal alcohol syndrome

Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman heavy drinking

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Habituation

Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation

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Maturation

Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience

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Cognition

All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

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Schema

Concept of framework that organizes and interprets information

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Assimilation

Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas

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Accommodation

Adapting our current understandings to incorporate new info

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Sensorimotor stage

The stage from birth to two years of age during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

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Object permanence

The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

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Preoperational stage

The stage from 2-6 or 7 years during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic

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Conservation

The principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

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Egocentrism

The preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view

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Theory of mind

People's ideas about their own and others' mental states-about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict

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Autism spectrum disorder

Appears in childhood and is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction, and by rigidly fixated interests and repetitive behaviors

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Concrete operational stage

From 7-11 years old during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

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Formal operational stage

Beginning at age 12 in which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

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Stranger anxiety

The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by 8 months of age

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Attachment

An emotional tie with another person, shown in young children

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Critical period

Optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development

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Imprinting

The process by which certain animals form strong attachments during an early life critical period

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Temperament

A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

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Basic trust

A sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy

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Self concept

All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves in answer to the question, "who am I?"

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Gender

The socially constructed roles and characteristics by which a culture defines males and females

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Aggression

Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy

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Gender role

A set of expected behaviors for males or females

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Role

A set of expectations about a social position

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Gender identity

Our sense of being male or female

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Social learning theory

We learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

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Gender typing

The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

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Transgender

Describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex

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Adolescence

The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence

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Identity

Our sense of self according to Erikson

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Social identity

The "we" aspect of our self concept; the part of our answer to "who am I?" That comes from our group memberships

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Intimacy

The ability to form close, loving relationships

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Emerging adulthood

A period from the late teens to mid twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence

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X chromosome

Sex chromosome found in both men and women

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Y chromosome

Sex chromosome only in males

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Testosterone

Most important of the male sex hormones

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Puberty

The period of sexual maturation, person becomes capable of reproducing

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Primary sex characteristics

The body structures that make sexual reproduction possible

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Secondary sex characteristics

Nonreproductive sexual traits

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Menarche

The first menstrual period

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AIDS

Sexually transmitted infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus

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Sexual orientation

Enduring sexual attraction between members of either one's own sex or of opposite sex

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Developmental psychology

Branch of psych that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

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Menopause

The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines

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Cross sectional study

People of different ages are compared with one another

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Longitudinal study

Research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period

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Social clock

The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement

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Concept

Mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people

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Prototype

A mental image or best example of a category

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Creativity

The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

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Convergent thinking

Narrows the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution

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Divergent thinking

Expands the number of possible problem solutions

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Algorithm

A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.

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Heuristic

Simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently

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Insight

A sudden realization of a problems solution

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Confirmation bias

A tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

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Mental set

A tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

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Intuition

An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning

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Representativeness heuristic

Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes, may lead us to ignore other relevant information

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Availability heuristic

Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory

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Overconfidence

The tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments

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Belief perseverance

Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited

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Framing

The way an issue is posed

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Language

Our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning

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Phoneme

In a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit

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Morpheme

The smallest unit that carries meaning, may be a word or part of a word

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Grammar

A system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others

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Babbling stage

The beginning at about four months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated tithe household language

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One-word stage

Stage is speech development where a child speaks single words

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Two-word stage

A child speaks mostly in two-word statements

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Telegraphic speech

Early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram, mostly nouns and verbs

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Aphasia

Impairment of language, left hemisphere damage

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Broca's area

Control's language expression, area of the frontal lobe, direct muscle movements involved in speech

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Wernicke's area

Controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression

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Linguistic determinism

Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think

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Wolfgang Kohler

Conducted experiment to study insight in other animals with chimpanzee

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Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman

Cognitive psychologist did research on the representativeness and availability heuristics

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Daniel Kahneman

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86

Steven Pinker

Studied how people speak and the air pressure waves we give off

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Noam Chomsky

Argued that all languages share some basic elements, "universal grammar"

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Carl Wernjcke

Discovered that after damage to an area of the left temporal lobe people could speak only meaningless words

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Benjamin Lee Whorf

Contended that language determines the way we think, language itself shapes a person's basic ideas

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Paul Broca

After Damage to an area of the left frontal lobe a person would struggle to speak words while still being able up song familiar songs and comprehend speech

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Jean Piaget

Studies led him to believe that a child's mind develops through a series of stages

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Lev Vygotsky

Emphasized how the child's mind grows through interaction with the social environment

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Konrad Lorenz

Explored rigid attachment process called imprinting

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Harry Harlow and Margaret Harlow

University of Wisconsin psychologists who bred monkeys for their studies

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Margaret Harlow

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Mary Ainsworth

Designed the strange situation experiment

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Diana Baumrind

Researched now children were based on their parents

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Carol Gilligan

Researched that females differed from males

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Albert Bandura

Conducted many experiences on conditioning and did lectures on the "psychology of chance encounters and life paths"

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Lawrence Kohlberg

Proposed that moral reasoning guides moral actions

101

Erik Erikson

Contended that each stage of life has its own psychosocial task, a crisis that needs resolution