Individual Differences Flashcards Preview

AP Psych > Individual Differences > Flashcards

Flashcards in Individual Differences Deck (48):
1

Intelligence test

A method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores

2

General intelligence

A general intelligence factor that, according to spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test

3

Factor analysis

A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score

4

Savant syndrome

A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as drawing

5

Grit

Passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long term goals

6

Intelligence

Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

7

Emotional intelligence

The ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions

8

Mental age

A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. A child who does as well as the average 8 year old has the mental age of an 8 year old

9

Stanford-Binet

The widely used American revision (by Terman) of Binet's original intelligence test

10

Intelligence quotient

Defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100

11

Achievement test

A test designed to assess what a person had learned

12

Aptitude test

A test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn

13

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

Most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance subtests

14

Standardization

Defining uniform testing procedures and meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pre tested group

15

Normal curve

The symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes.

16

Reliability

The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting

17

Validity

The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to

18

Content validity

The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest

19

Predictive validity

The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; computes correlation

20

Cohort

A group of people from a given time period

21

Mental age

A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. A child who does as well as the average 8 year old has the mental age of an 8 year old

22

Stanford-Binet

The widely used American revision (by Terman) of Binet's original intelligence test

23

Intelligence quotient

Defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100

24

Achievement test

A test designed to assess what a person had learned

25

Aptitude test

A test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn

26

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

Most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance subtests

27

Standardization

Defining uniform testing procedures and meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pre tested group

28

Normal curve

The symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes.

29

Reliability

The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting

30

Validity

The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to

31

Content validity

The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest

32

Predictive validity

The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; computes correlation

33

Cohort

A group of people from a given time period

34

Crystallized intelligence

Our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age

35

Fluid intelligence

Our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

36

Intellectual disability

A condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life

37

Down syndrome

A condition of mild to severe intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21

38

Heritability

The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied

39

Stereotype threat

A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype

40

Charles Spearman

Helped develop factor analysis and believed people often have special abilities that stand out

41

L.L. Thurstone

Gave 56 different tests to people and mathematically identified seven clusters of primary mental abilities

42

Howard Gardner

Views intelligence as multiple abilities that come in different packages.

43

Robert Sternberg

Agrees that there is more to success than traditional intelligence and agrees with Gardner's idea of multiple intelligences -theory of three intelligences

44

Francis Galton

English scientist with a fascination with measuring human traits

45

Alfred Binet

Played role in predicting school achievement

46

Louis Terman

Intelligence tests revealed the intelligence with which a person was born

47

David Wechsler

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

48

Carol Dweck

Reports that believing intelligence is biologically set and unchanging can lead to a fixed mindset