Motivation Flashcards Preview

AP Psych > Motivation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Motivation Deck (37):
1

Instinct

A complex, unlearned behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species

2

Drive-reduction theory

The idea hat a physiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.

3

Homeostasis

A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level

4

Incentive

A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

5

Yerkes-Dodson law

The principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases

6

Hierarchy of needs

Maslows pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher level safety needs and then psychological needs become active

7

Glucose

The form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When it's level is low, we feel hunger

8

Set point

The point at whic. An individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set

9

Basal metabolic rate

The body's resting rate of energy expenditure

10

Sexual response cycle

The four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson-excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution

11

Refractory period

A resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm

12

Sexual dysfunction

A problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning

13

Estrogens

Sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics

14

Testosterone

The most important of the male sex hormones

15

Emotions

A response of the whole organism involving physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience

16

James-Lange theory

The theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion arousing stimuli

17

Motivation

A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

18

Cannon-Bard theory

An emotion arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion

19

Two factor theory

The Schachner Singer theory that to experience emotion one must be physically arouses and cognitively label the arousal

20

Polygraph

A machine commonly used in attempts to detect lies

21

Facial feedback effect

The tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear, anger, or happiness

22

Health psychology

A sub field of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine

23

Stress

Process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging

24

General adaptation syndrome

Seyles concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three phases-alarm, resistance, exhaustion

25

Tend and befriend response

Under stress, people often provide support to others and bond with and seek support from others

26

Psychophysiological illness

Literally mind body illness, any stress related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches

27

Psychoneuroimmunology

Study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health

28

Lymphocytes

The two parts of white blood cells that are part of the immune system

29

Coronary heart disease

The clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle

30

Type A

Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger prone people

31

Type B

Term for easy going and relaxed people

32

Abraham Maslow

Developed hierarchy of needs

33

William Masters

Identified the four stages of the sexual response cycle

34

Virginia Johnson

Helped to identify the four stages of the sexual response cycle

35

William James

Developed theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion arousing stimuli

36

Stanley Schachter

Created two-factor theory

37

Hans Selye

Developed the general adaptation syndrome