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AP Psych > Personality > Flashcards

Flashcards in Personality Deck (49):
1

Psychoanalysis

Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions

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Unconscious

According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. Information processing of which we are unaware

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Id

A reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification

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Ego

The largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediated among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. Operates on he reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain

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Superego

The part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations

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Psychosexual stages

The childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones

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Oedipus complex

A boys sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father

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Identification

The process by which, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos

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Fixation

A lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved

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Defense mechanisms

In psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

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Repression

In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

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Psychodynamic theories

Modern day approaches that view personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences

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Collective unconscious

Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history

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Projective test

A personality test, such as Rorschach, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics

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Thematic apperception test

A proven move test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

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Rorschach ink blot test

The most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots

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False consensus effect

The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and our behaviors

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Terror-management theory

A theory of death related anxiety; explores people's emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death

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Humanistic theories

View personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth

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Self-actualization

According to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential

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Unconditional positive regard

According to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person

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Self concept

All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "who am I?"

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Trait

A characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports

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Personality inventory

A questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits

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Free association

A method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing

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Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory

Most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders

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Empirically derived test

A test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups

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Social-cognitive perspective

Views behavior as influenced by the interaction between peoples traits and their social context

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Behavioral approach

In personality theory, this perspective focused on the effects of learning on our personality development

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Reciprocal determinism

The interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment

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Positive psychology

The scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive

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Self

Assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions

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Spotlight effect

Overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders

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Self esteem

One's feelings of high or low self worth

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Self-efficacy

One's sense of competence and effectiveness

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Self-serving bias

A readiness to perceive oneself favorably

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Narcissism

Excessive self-love and self-absorption

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Individualism

Giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications

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Collectivism

Giving priority to the goals of one's group and defining one's identity accordingly

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Sigmund Freud

First to focus clinical attention on the unconscious mind

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Alfred Adler

Believed that childhood social tensions are crucial for personality formation

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Karen Horney

Said childhood anxiety triggers desire for love and security

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Carl Jung

Believes the unconscious is the very source of the creative impulse

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Abraham Maslow

Proposed we are motivated by a hierarchy of needs, studied healthy people other than clinical cases

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Carl Rogers

Believed that people are basically good and are endowed with self-actualizing tendencies

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Robert McCrae

Did work showing where we fall on these dimensions: conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extra version

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Paul Costa

Helped develop most active personality research topic, best approximation of the basic trait dimensions

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Albert Bandura

Proposed social cognitive perspective, emphasizes the interaction of our traits with our situations

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Martin Seligman

Positive psychology; thriving western cultures have a parallel opportunity to create, as a "humane, scientific monument"