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Flashcards in Collapsed Structures- PN 302 Deck (24)
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What are the NATURAL causes of collapse?



What are the HUMAN causes of collapse?

-Premises is under renovation
-Accidental impact
-Terrorism induced (vehicular impact,explosion)
-Accidental gas explosion


What are the elements of structure?

Beam : spans an opening,can withstand
load placed upon it
Column: carries weight via compressive
force to elements below
Floor : divides building,helps Support walls
Wall : load bearing or not,separates area and
provides Shelter
Protected Shaft:enclosed space between floors,
increased strength + fire resistance
Gallery : floor spanning high ceiling room, adds
space and helps support high wall.


What are the types of construction?

Framed. :typically steel or reinforced
concrete, frame bears load.
Commonly modern buildings,
greater resistance to collapse.

Unframed :Walls will be load bearing, also referred
to traditional or masonry construction.
If load bearing walls columns or
beams fail, result is extensive
collapse + large area of debris.


What are the 3 categories of collapse?



Name the 4 types of Internal collapse

-Pancake: failure of load bearing walls or an
upper collapse causes
subsequent collapses via shock
-Lean to : where a supporting wall fails
and a beam fails at one end,
forming triangle shaped void
- "V". : Floor fails in centre, but not at ends
- Tent : Floor beams fail near outer walls but
remain supported in centre.


Name the 3 types of external collapse

-90° collapse:MOST DANGEROUS- wall
falls outward for a distance at.
least equal to its height.
-Curtain :Part of the wall comes straight
down, debris piles up near base.
-Inward/ :horizontal crack in middle
Outward causes one section to collapse
inward, one outward


Who should the OIC request at any dangerous structure / collapse?

Local authority Dangerous Structures engineer.


Pending the arrival of a Dangerous Structures Engineer, what control ,ensures can be implemented?

Cordons put in place


Depending on the scale and causes of collapse, what procedures may need to be instigated by the IC?

-Major Incident procedure
-Terrorist related Incidents
-Civil Disturbance
-Fires involving Radiation


Why is scene preservation an important consideration?

The majority of collapses will be subject to an investigation by the Police and HSE.


What unusual pressures, particularly in the early stages of the incident, may crews face?

Extreme Pressure to act through public expectation.


Why is it important to remove Good Samaritans from the scene as quickly as possible?

Any remaining parts of the structure may be structurally unsafe, and uncoordinated actions by non emergency service personnel could lead to further collapse.


What hazards may be encountered at collapsed structure incidents?

-obstructed/restricted access
-restricted visibility (smoke,dust)
-unstable underfoot conditions
-falling objects
-overhanging hazards
-airborne particulates/irrespirable atmosphere
-secondary collapse
-weight and position of casualties
-bulk and weight of debris
-explosive / flammable atmosphere
-poor lighting
-biological hazards
-exposed / damaged utilities
-sharp/protruding objects
-further acts of terror (if this was the initial cause)


What would the OIC consider requesting and providing at an early stage of the incident?

USAR tactical advisor (UA)
Dangerous Structures Engineer

Dedicated USAR RVP if required.


What would be an OIC's Early considerations?

-Positioning of appliances/RVP To minimise
-correct level of PPE Required
-creation of zones / cordons
-Isolation of Utilities


What considerations should staff committed to the structure make?

-Avoid forcing doors or windows, they may
be supporting load.
-Staff should remain as close to walls as
possible to avoid undue strain on floors.
- Utilities may not be isolated.


What Tactical considerations should an OIC make?

Incidents of this nature:
- are usually protracted
- attract a large attendance
- require close Inter-agency working


What capability does the brigade have to deal with collapsed structures, and what resources provide the staff and equipment?

Capability- USAR (part of new dimension)
Resources- Dedicated FRU's, plus 5


What are the 5 USAR Modules?

1-Structural Collapse
2-Major Transport
3-Breaching and Breaking
4-Multi Purpose Vehicle


In what way should operations be carried out and what order should rescues be undertaken

Operations should be systematic, co-ordinated and based on up to date information.
Rescues should be easiest first moving on to more complex.


What are the '6 stages of rescue'?

R - Reconnaissance and survey
E - Elimination of utilities
P - Primary surface search and rescue
E - Exploration of voids and spaces
A - Access by selected debris removal
T - Terminate by general debris removal

*stages will overlap, but all must be completed.
This is a protracted process.


What control measures must be implemented by the OIC to ensure crew safety?

-Dedicated safety officers
-An evacuation signal must be established
and communicated
-Minimum staff committed to risk area at any time
-Emergency team must remain available


What resources can the IC consider at the R stage

Interrogation of plans
Interview of witnesses