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Flashcards in Decision making model Deck (29)
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A key element in this DMM process is

the consideration of safety and the development of safe systems of work


Formalising a best practice approach to decision making provides consistent feedback to individuals on their performance. To the individual:

• Encourages individuals to use their initiative and take personal responsibility.
• Facilitates consistent assessment of management skills.
• Brings together and reinforces training and actual experience.
• Provides a structure for developing and controlling safe systems of work.


Formalising a best practice approach to decision making provides consistent feedback to individuals on their performance. To the Brigade:

• Identifies areas for further in-depth analysis and review.
• Supports the training of officers in the management process.
• Improves the knowledge and skills of any personnel who may undertake the role of manager at any level.


The following are examples of when the decision making model could benefit personnel other than those attending operational incidents. The list is not exhaustive:

• Accidents, accident investigation and post accident action.
• Performance or conduct issues.
• Compliments or complaints procedures.
• Welfare issues.


The DMM is formed around two main activities, Deciding and Acting. Each stage identified in the model falls into one of these activities.

• Gathering and thinking about all available information.
• Identifying appropriate objectives.
• Defining a plan.
• Considering the results of evaluations.


The DMM is formed around two main activities, Deciding and Acting. Each stage identified in the model falls into one of these activities.

• Communicating the objectives and plan to all those at the incident.
• Controlling the activity.
• Evaluating the outcome of the plan.


During the initial stages of any decision making process it is necessary to gather relevant information. There are four sources of information that should be considered:

• Information on the task/event.
• Information on resources.
• Information on risks and benefits.
• Information on progress.


The first stage in the process involves gathering relevant information, whilst making the best use of the time available. It must be recognised that information gathering is the key to effective decision making
The following are some examples of information about the task/event that the person or persons following the process should be considering.

• What is the environment?
• What is happening?
• Is the situation static or developing?
• What was it that led up to the event?
• Who is involved?
• Are there any immediate risks to anyone?


Information about resources
What is available to assist in the resolution of the task or event? This may include:

• People.
• Equipment.
• Agreed policies and procedures.
• Information sources.
• Other agencies and knowledge or training.


Information about the risks and benefits
In considering risk and benefit the broadest approach should be taken since they may apply to people, property, the environment or a combination of all of these and/or many others. The decision maker should consider:

• Who and/or what is the event likely to present a risk to?
• What are the potential benefits from a particular course of action


Once all the available information has been gathered and considered

the decision maker will be able to identify and set a number of objectives that need to be achieved


Clear and defined objectives give direction

to resolve the task/event in a satisfactory manner thereby achieving the principal aim of the Authority: 'Making London a Safer City'


When developing effective plans, the achieving of set objectives is unlikely to be considered in isolation. There may be a number of conflicting priorities such as:

• Safety issues.
• Availability of resources.
• Involvement of other agencies and their objectives.


The planning stage should result in the development of actions designed to deliver the required outcomes with an acceptable level of risk to those involved. These are defined as

Safe Systems of Work.


key aspects exist that are essential to effective communication. These are:

• The relevance of the information.
• The accuracy of the information.
• The timeliness of the information.
• Selection of the medium to be used


Maintaining relevance

The information should be relevant to the recipient, as there may be little or no benefit from passing on all details of the event. Effectiveness of communication is often improved by only including details that affect the recipient, so keeping the information clear and concise. However, care should be taken not to exclude information that may indirectly affect individual efforts or safety, such as the work of others around them



The information should be accurate to avoid confusion and misinterpretation when it is passed to the recipient. Good communication will leave the recipient in no doubt of what is expected.


Timely information

: The information passed should be current. Information that is out dated or whose validity has expired should not be passed on


Choice of medium:
When passing information it is important that a medium is used which is suitable to the situation. Examples of possible media include:

• Verbal communication, whether it be face to face or by radio.
• Visual communications, such as hand signals.
• Written communication.


The most appropriate medium will depend on the individual situation and the nature of the information to be passed

It would be inappropriate, for example, to rely on verbal communication in a noisy environment to pass a complex chemical name when a written note would avoid misinterpretation. The use of established communication routes and methods will assist in ensuring the effective flow of information to all those involved.



It is important to confirm that the communication has been received and understood. Often the easiest way to make sure that the recipient has accurately understood what is expected of them is to have them repeat it back


Having communicated the plan to those involved it is necessary to make sure that resources are allocated appropriately

, that the actions taken comply with the plan and safe systems of work are put into place. Responsibility for certain areas may be delegated to make sure control is maintained over the whole event and to enable individuals to carry out tasks effectively


Expected progress

Having formulated the plan and allocated the required resources with the relevant levels of control, the decision maker will have decided the timeframe within which objectives and events should be achieved. This is the expected progress to be made.


Actual progress

- By receiving regular updates in the form of progress or situation reports the decision maker will be able to determine the actual progress being made



The decision maker will need to make a comparison between the expected progress and information on progress actually achieved. This will allow the decision maker to determine whether the plan is effective or requires amendment


The evaluation phase completes the information-gathering loop and ensures

that the control of the task/event remains dynamic


The outcome will be achieved successfully when the

objectives are met with minimal exposure to risk.


On each occasion that new information, from any source, is introduced into the event the decision maker will evaluate

the objectives, plan and control structure in light of this information, through use of the Decision Making Model, to ensure safe systems of work are maintained and resources are being used to best effect


Finally, it must be stressed that the use of the Decision Making Model should be

continuous through out an event. In the early dynamic stages it may be used many times and as the event becomes more controlled and less dynamic the model may be used less frequently