Flashcards in Commercial PTS Systems and Equip Malfuction Cessna 310 Deck (16)
Partial or complete power loss
M - maintain AC control and trade airspeed for altitude best glide 107 for complete power loss
A- ID symptoms of power loss ( engine failure)
T- pitch for 111 (SE) and point to closest airfield
Fix on the way: fuel selector, (carb) mixture, pump, mags and fix
L-land as soon as conditions permit squak 7700 and mayday mayday or advise ATC
Engine roughness or overheat
1. Detonation (too lean)
2.preignition (too lean)
3. Spark plug fowling (too rich)
Detonation (uncontrolled explosive detonation of fuel/air mixture) one cause of engine roughness and overheat
Characterized by High CHT
High power settings, excessively lean mixture, steep climbs, high manifold pressure and low RPM, extended ground ops, low grade fuel
Do opposite to combat
Another cause of engine roughness is preignition
-fuel/air ignites prior to normal ignition event due to hot spot in cylinder or carbon deposit on spark plug
-causes high temps and loss of power
-damages engine because gasses expand at the wrong time during cycle
Both detonation and preignition can be similar and can cause each other. Use proper fuel grade and smart power settings and mixture control
Too rich of mixture can cause fowling of spark plugs. Lean out mixture to burn excess deposits left behind from too rich of mixture.
Carb or induction iceing
310 is fuel injected so the potential for induction iceing is less than a carbureted engine. In a fuel injected engine, the fuel is introduced to the air mixture at a later stage, typically within a very warm part of engine.
Induction icing could still be a concern with the pathways the air takes from the engine inlets to air filter.
Loss of oil pressure
Loss of oil pressure without an increase of oil temp could indicate a faulty sensor or clogged oil line. You need to land at nearest suitable airport
A rise in oil temp and loss of pressure is indicative of insufficient oil such as a leak. Divert and land as soon as possible.
Check fuel supply and mixture
Turn pumps on
Circuit breakers can once but allow a 2 min cool period. After one reset, disable breaker and leve it popped and mark it
Think of an ammeter as the flow of energy in between alternator and battery. After engine start there will be a positive flow because the alternator is charging battery. If negative during flight then the alternator is not charging battery and battery is being used. Zero flow indicates the system has charged the battery and components are running off the alternator/generator as they should.
If alternator failure, you should check circuit breaker and reset. If continues to fail, then turn off all unnecessary equipment and land.
If alternator continues to charge battery (positive charge) for too long, battery can overheat and explode. Pull circuit breaker, shut off unnecessary electricals and land.
On some planes (cirrus) a low voltage light (alt 2) will come on during low rpm ground operations. This is normal.
Vacuum pressure and associated instruments
Check various sources
Other instruments must be relied on in the event of a vaccum failure, especially if IFR (stay VFR if able).
Turn and slip indicator for bank (electric)
Turn coord for bank
Mag compass bank
Airspeed, VSI and altimeter for pitch
Some aircraft have backup electric vacuum systems (not the 310) or backup engine driven in parallel to main system
Pitot static malfunction
Affect ASI, altimeter, and VSI
Susceptible to Iceing, use pitot heat
If pitot tube blocked and static port clear? ASI will not work but VSI and ALT will
If both tube and drain hole blocked? ASI will act like an altimeter increasing as you climb and decreasing as you descend. VSI and ALT read normal
If the static port is blocked/frozen?
ASI will be accurate at altitude at which it was blocked (otherwise will act like altimeter)
Altimeter will freeze at that altitude
VSI will indicate level
-use alternate source or break the face of static instrument
If using alternate air: because cabin static pressure is lower than outside static pressure, the altimeter will indicate higher than actual, airspeed will be greater and VSI will indicate a climb
Landing gear or flap cessna 310
Landing gear malfunction: use checklist
-Gear switch middle position (breaks circuit)
-pilot seat tilt back
-emergency gear Handel remove from stowage
-crank approx 60 rotations and a couple more times after gear down light comes on.
-stow crank and readjust seat.
-advise ATC and fly by as required
Nose gear malfunction: the idea is to shift weight to the back, fly a slow approach (95) flaps 20 and secure the engines prior to land. Hold nose up as long as possible
Asymmetric split flaps:
The side that the flap is down has significant more lift resulting in pilot using cross controls. Fly faster than normal approach and and minimal flare to avoid cross control stall situation
Do not underestimate. In the 310, there isn't electric trim or autopilot so disengaging a circuit breaker is not an option.
If stuck in nose high trim, think about slowing down and introducing some flaps, which usually pitches the nose down.
If nose low, perhaps flying faster than usual and holding off flaps on approach
Directional may be compensated with aileron trim and bank with rudder trim. Fly faster as this can cause cross control issues
Inadvertent door or window opening
If a cabin door opens, open a window so that you can easily push out and then close door. Then close window.
If a cargo door opens, airflow will keep it relatively closed until you can land and shut it. Do not let anyone try and close cargo door.
Avoid flight into known iceing small temp dew point spread and temps +2 to -20c are prone to iceing. Climb or descend change course
Iceing can reduce drag by 30-40
Clear icing is thick and heavy
Rime is milky and
Smoke/fire/engine compartment fire
On the ground if engine fire develops it is advisable to continue to start engine and increase rpm to put out fire then shut down
Safety is paramount so get out if unsure and get extinguisher
Engine fire in flight: feather and secure engine and obtain an airspeed in which the fire is incombustible. Slip away if necessary. Close off cabin vents and open overhead vents. Declare emergency and land
Electrical fire: burning odor is indication of electrical fire. Locate component checking for popped circuit breakers. Ventilate. If odor continues then turn master switch, avionics and all electrical switches off
To continue troubleshooting, turn master on and turn components on one at a time, looking for odor and circuit breaker popping.
If component not necessary don't bother.
Emergency descent and landing may be required for smoke or fire in cockpit
How many emergencies must you be evaluated on?
Know how to use Em equip and what is. Ended on board
Determined by type of climate and terrain
If aircraft is flown for hire over water beyond power off glide back range, then approved flotation gear needs to be available for each occupant along with one pyrotechnic signaling device
If needed:whiskey compass for direction on ground
Oil for smoke signals
Gas for fire
Upholstery for cousin and protection
Wires for strings and snares
Battery can ignite fuel