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Flashcards in Common household products Deck (19):
1

Ethylene Glycol uses

- antifreeze
- coolant
- industrial solvent
- rust remover

2

Ethylene glycol properties

- readily soluble in water
- sweet, colorless, odorless
- lowers the freezing point of water

3

Ethylene Glycol toxicity

- common in dogs and cats
- mortality= 59-70% in dogs
- minimum lethal dose 1.4mL/kg in cats
- mld in dogs= 4.2-6.6 mL/kg

4

Ethylene glycol toxicokinetics

- Absorbed from GIT (can be delayed by food)
- Rapidly distributes to all tissues
- half life 3-4 hours in dogs
- half life shorter in cats
- dogs= peak plasma level at 2 hours
- toxic metabolites produced by liver

5

Order of oxidization of ethylene glycol

ethylene glycol --> glycoaldehyde --> glycolic acid --> glycoxylic acid --> oxalic acid and a bunch of other not important stuff

6

Bad metabolite of ethylene glycol

oxalic acid

7

How does oxalic acid work

- binds to serum calcium
- forms insoluble calcium oxalate crystals and hypocalcemia

8

MOA of ethylene glycol

- GI irritation
- increased serum osmolality= osmotic diuresis
- CNS depression
- metabolites can cause metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure

9

ethylene glycol EARLY clinical signs

- 30 min- 12 hrs
- nausea/ vomitting
- CNS depression
ataxia
- tachycardia and tachypnea
- muscle fasiculations
- PU/PD
- dehydration, coma, death

10

ethylene glycol LATE clinical signs

- 24-72 hours in dogs
- 12-24 hrs in cats
- oliguric renal failure
anuria by 72 hours

11

ethylene glycol lesions

- hemorrhagic gastroenteritis
- pulmonary edema
- pale and swollen kidneys with gray or yellow streaks
- yellow calcium oxalate crystals in kidney, urine or brain

12

Ethylene glycol lab findings

- Increased serum osmolality
- Increased anion gap (more than 40-50 mEq/L)
- low urine specific gravity
- blood pH less than 7.3
- hypocalcemia and hypoglycemia
- Increased creatinine and BUN
- Hyperphosphatemia and hyperkalemia
- Increased PCV and TP
- Calcium oxalate in urine

13

Ethylene glycol chemical analysis
- Kacey EG test

- run on plasma
- negative test does not rule out exposure
- false positives from propylene glycol, mannitol, sorbitol, glycerol and ethanol

14

ethylene glycol chemical analysis- Catachem test

- No false positives with ethanol
- variable interference with propylene glycol

15

ethylene glycol serum osmolality

- increases as early as 1 hr after
- other stuff in antifreeze solution might glow with woods lamp

16

ethylene glycol treatment general

- activate charcoal
- antidotes- inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase

17

Fomepizole treatment for ethylene glycol

- Inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase
- dogs and cats IV
- better than treating with ethanol (no CNS depression, diuresis or hyperosmolality)
- fluids: IV 5% dextrose in half stength saline

18

Ethanol treatment for ethylene glycol

- 20% ethanol
- has a higher affinity for alcohol dehydrogenase than ethylene glycol
- Causes CNS depression
- not used after first 24 hrs

19

Ethylene glycol prognosis

- Early treatment= good
- Once azotemic prognosis is grave