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Flashcards in Petroleum Products and Gases Deck (41):
1

Types of petroleum products

Crude oil, sour crude oil, refined oil

2

Properties of crude oil

- sweet
- rich in gasoline, kerosene and naptha

3

Properties of sour crude oil

- high sulfur
- lubricating oil and gas oil

4

Refined petroleum products are

Aliphatic hydrocarbons

5

Short chain aliphatics

- less than 5 carbons
- methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane
- low toxicity but are very volatile

6

Long chain aliphatics

- more than 5 carbons
- gasoline, kerosene, mineral oil, turpentine
- cause aspiration pneumonia

7

Chlorinated aliphatics

- Chloroform
- dry cleaning and degreasing solutions
- CNS issues

8

Aromatic/Polycyclic hydrocarbons

- quick dry paints, resins, glues, plastics
- benzene, toluene, xylene
- bone marrow suppression

9

Uses of petroleum

- Fuel
- Solvents
- Inerts
- lubricants

10

Source of exposure

- household
- drill sites
- oil spills

11

Toxic properties

- highly irritant to skin and mucous membranes
- oily

12

Chlorinated napthalenes cause

bovine skin hyperkeratosis

13

Chemical properties

- high boiling points = less volatile = waxes and mineral oil are relatively non toxic due to poor absorption
- low boiling points= more volatile = more toxic because they mess up the lungs

14

the most toxic Petroleum products have

- low boiling point
- low viscosity
- low surface tension

15

Which is more lethal? sweet crude oil or sour crude oil

sweet (gasoline)

16

Which species is most susceptible to crude petroleum

Cattle

17

Which animals are most frequently poisoned

small animals

18

Toxicokinetics

- Absorbed from GI, skin and inhalation
- absorption is inversely proportional to molecular weight

19

Which hydrocarbons are more readily absorbed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

20

Excretion

- changed in liver and excreted in urine
- if volatile might be through lungs

21

Cause of death

- aspiration pneumonia from vomiting
- chemical pneumonitis

22

Dolphins can

vomit

23

MOA

- irritation of GI
- systemic CNS effects
- liver and kidney damage

24

CS

- shivering, incoordination, anorexia, weight loss, fever, coughing, etc.
- smell of oil
- oil in feces
- possible CNS signs

25

Lesions

- Ulceration in trachea
- oil in bronchi or GI
- necrosis of liver and kidney

26

Treatment

- Activated charcoal and mineral oil
- rest
- supportive

27

Contraindicated treatments

- emetics and gastric lavage
- glucocorticoids

28

DDT MOA

- doesnt allow sodium potassium transport across axonal membranes
- neurotoxin

29

DDT toxicity

- Kills insects
- Fish= repro and CNS
- Birds= eggshell thinning
- mammals = liver, kidney, CNS, cancer

30

DDT half life

- long half life
- bioaccumulation and magnification

31

Sodium Fluoride

highly toxic and no longer used

32

Fluoride sources

- contamination from industry
- herbaceous parts of plants accumulate large amounts

33

Properties of fluoride

- strong affinity for calcium, aluminum and iron

34

Toxicity of fluoride

- chronic is most common
- herbivores

35

Increase toxicity of fluoride

- age: young animals more sensitive
- can cross placental barrier but doesn't usually affect fetus

36

Toxicokinetics of fluoride

- absorbed through GI and distributed
- milk fluoride is not easily absorbed
- stored in bones and teeth
- Mainly excreted in urine

37

MOA of fluoride

- Caustic to GI
- inhibits mitochondrial enzymes

38

Chronic fluoride tox

- production of abnormal bone (exostosis and sclerosis)
- discoloration of teeth

39

Acute fluoride tox

- rapid onset
- GI signs
- CNS stimulation
- stiffness and weakness
- death from respiratory and cardiac failure

40

Collecting specimens

- Bone when dead
- urine can confirm exposure

41

Treatment

aluminum salts and other things to form insoluble fluoride in gut