Water Deprivation-Sodium Ion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Water Deprivation-Sodium Ion Deck (16):
1

Sources

- feeding brine, whey or garbage
- ingestion of salt lick or ice melts
- salty water

2

Environmental factors that cause excess sodium/ lack of water

- overcrowding
- frozen water
- medicated water (tastes yucky)
- lack of water

3

Properties of salt

- tastes good! (tru dat)
- mild irritant to membranes

4

Normal Salt levels

- usually present at 0.5-1% in feed

5

Animals can tolerate what percentage of salt with free access to water

more than 10% salt in feed

6

Most and least susceptible animals

Pigs, cattle, poultry =most
dogs= less

7

toxicokinetics

- rapidly absorbed GI
- enters brain by passive diffusion and removed by active
- can be excreted in urine if there is enough water
- if not it causes hypertonicity of the blood

8

MOA

- plasma sodium increases
- cerebrospinal sodium increases
- inhibits anaerobic glycolysis = no energy for active transport of salt out
- trapped sodium causes edema

9

Clinical signs

- constipation and thirst
- then vomiting, polyuria and metabolic acidosis
- then seizures, circling, head pressing, blindness, deafness
- inability to eat or drink

10

Clinical signs in chickens

- depression
- ascites
- collapse

11

Lesions

- GI congestion with pinpoint ulcers
- fluid in body cavities
- cerebral edema

12

Pathognomonic lesion in pigs

eosinophilic meningoencephalitis

13

Lab work

- serum and CSF with increased sodium (greater than 160)
- salt in feed

14

Treatment

- small amounts of fresh water gradually over 2-3 days
- IV fluids (dextrose and furosemide) and anticonvulsants in small animals

15

Why cant you give large amounts of water

- makes cerebral edema worse

16

Prognosis

Poor
50/50