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Flashcards in Selenium Deck (29):
1

Disease associated with deficiency

- White muscle disease in lambs, calves and foals
- hepatosis dietetica in pigs
- exudative diathesis in chicks
- nutritional pancreatic atrophy in chickens
- porcine stress syndrome

2

Low sodium areas

Northeast, East coast, florida, washington and half of west coast

3

Use

- feed supplements
- antioxidant supplement
- medicated shampoo for dermatitis

4

Source

- Cattle, sheep and horses get it from plants
- swine and poultry get grains from selenium rich soil

5

Seleniferous plants

- Obligate accumulators
- Facultative accumulators
- passive accumulators- normal crops
- unpalatable and have a bad odor

6

Toxicosis

- Overdosage
- contaminated water
- improper use of shampoos

7

Properties

- Essential trace element
- Similar to sulfur and arsenic
- combines with -SH
- is a component of glutathione peroxidase
- irritant to mucous membranes

8

3 oxidation states

- selenate +6
- selenite +4
- selenide -2

9

How does selenium act as an antioxidant

- prevents cellular degeneration with vitamin E

10

Toxicity most to least

organic --> selenate--> selenite --> selenide --> synthetic

11

How is toxicity reduced

- high protein diet
- ingestions of other elements that bind Se (copper)

12

Toxicokinetics

- absorbed from small intestine
- organic is more absorbed than other states
- elemental Se is not absorbed/ soluble in water
- distributed throughout the body
- can cross placenta and is excreted in milk

13

Where will you find high conc. of Se

- Hair and hoof

14

What increases biliary excretion

arsenic

15

MOA

- Irritant of GI
- depletion of tissue glutathione
- replaces sulfur in amino acids = fucked up proteins
- decrease ATP
- decrease tissue ascorbic acid

16

Death in acute and subacute is due to

- respiratory insufficiency from pulmonary edema and hemorrhage

17

Death in chronic cases is due to

- starvation and thirst from weakness, lameness and blindness

18

Acute CS from oral ingestion

- onset can be a few hours to days
- GI signs
- Respiratory signs
- bloody froth from nose
- cyanosis
- fever, polyuria, mydriasis and bad gait
- death in hours

19

Acute CS from parenteral administration

neurological signs
mydriasis
incoordination

20

Subacute CS in cattle

- Blind staggers
- Stage 1: poor appetite, wandering, circling, normal respiration and temp
- Stage 2: depression, incoordination, foreleg weakness, walking on knees, anorexia
- Stage 3: colic, hypothermia, emaciation, clouded corneas, paresis, coma, death

21

Subacute CS in swine

- porcine focal symmetrical poliomyelomalacia
- neurologic signs
- alopecia, hoof abnormalities and separation of the hoof

22

Chronic toxicosis (alkali disease)

- Rough hair coat
- hoof deformities
- joint issues
- partial blindness, anemia, lethargy, emaciation, infertility and birth defects

23

Lesions in acute cases

- Hemorrhagic GI, congestion of organs, pulmonary edema, hydrothorax
- gut contents smell like rotten garlic or horseradish

24

Lab results for acute

- Elevated selenium in blood, kidney and liver

25

Lab results for chronic

- Selenium elevations in hair and hoof

26

Blood plasma glutathione peroxidase activity will not correlate with blood Se concentration in which species

horses

27

Treatment for Acute

- Saline cathartics
- oxygen
- Acetylcysteine

28

Treatment for subacute and chronic

- Test soil
- Remove animals
- add copper, organic arsenicals, and protein to diet

29

Prognosis

Poor