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Flashcards in Ionophores Deck (21):
1

Use of ionophores

- anticoccidial in production animals
- growth promoter feed additive for cattle
- reduction of bloat and rumen acidosis
- prevent tryptophan induced atypical bovine pulmonary emphysema

2

Monensin is used to

improve efficiency of milk production

3

Solubility of ionophores

- slightly soluble in water
- soluble in organic solvents and oils

4

How do ionophores get across membranes

they form lipid soluble complexes with cations that are easily transported across

5

Most common source of ionphore toxicosis

- Monensin
- usually too much in the feed for the specific species
- sometimes used to poison horses

6

Most to least sensitive species

Equines --> cattle --> poultry

7

What will increase toxicosis

- concurrent admin of other drugs (mostly antibacterials and antifungals)

8

Toxicokinetics

- ruminants= absorb 50%
- monogastrics= absorb MOST of it
- distributed through the body
- not high levels in any specific part of the body

9

Metabolism of ionophores

- rapid
- P-450 oxidative demethylation enzymes in the liver
- excreted in bile
- slower in horses

10

MOA of ionophores

- fuck with transmembrane electrochemical gradients
- targets mitochondria in energetic tissues
- increases intracellular sodium and calcium
- cell death due to loss of homeostasis
- ROS production

11

What cells are most affected by the ionophores

- neurons, myocardium, skeletal muscles, and smooth muscle
- messed up calcium messes everything up

12

Clinical signs in horses

- rapid onset
- anorexia, colic
- sweating, depression, incoordination
- hyperventilation
- tachycardia, arrhythmias, death

13

Clinical signs in cattle

- anorexia, diarrhea
- depression, ataxia
- labored breathing
- death

14

Clinical signs in poultry

-anorexia, diarrhea
- ataxia
- resting on the knees with wings and leg directed outward
- decreased egg production

15

clinical signs in dogs

- ataxia, muscle weakness of HIND limbs
- respiratory paralysis
- dyuria
- constipation
- depression

16

Lesions with inonphore toxicosis

- pale cardiac muscles in horses with white streaks of necrosis
- pale skeletal muscles in sheep, pigs and dogs
- both skeletal and cardiac in cattle and poultry

17

Chemical analysis for ionophores

- detect ppb levels
- Best to sample feed
- then sample GI contents, liver and feces

18

Clin path for ionophore toxicosis

- elevated CPK, AST, LDH, ALP, PCV
- decreased serum Ca and K in first 12 hrs
- No change in sodium

19

Treatment for ionophore

- no specific antidote
- remove medicated feed
- Detox with activated charcoal, mineral oil or saline cathartics

20

Symptomatic treatment

- IV fluids and electrolytes
- potassium
- monitor cardiac function
- horses should not be ridden for MONTHS

21

Prognosis for horses

- they can survive sometimes but will never be great at their job