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Flashcards in Communications - Chapter 5 Deck (15):

What are the two organizational patterns for business messages?

Direct pattern and indirect pattern


What's the difference between direct and indirect patterns?

Direct pattern has the main idea comes first, followed by details, explanation, and evidence. Indirect pattern, the main idea follows the details, explanation, and evidence


When to use direct pattern?

The audience response determines pattern. If audience is pleased, if mildly interested, or if neutral, use direct pattern.


When to use indirect pattern?

If unwilling or uninterested, if displeased or disappointed, or if hostile use indirect pattern


What are 3 advantages of direct pattern?

saves reader's time, sets a proper frame of mind, and reduces frustration


What 3 advantages of indirect pattern?

respects the feelings of the audience, facilitates a fair hearing, minimizes a negative reaction


How are clauses different from phrases?

Clauses have subjects and verbs, phrases do not


How are independent clauses different from dependent clauses?

Independent clauses are grammatically complete. Dependent clauses depend their meaning on dependent clauses.


What are 3 common sentence faults?

fragments, run on sentences, and comma splice sentences


Sentences should average how many words?

20 words. To communicate clearly you should strive for shorter sentences.


What 5 techniques can be used to emphasize important ideas?

1. use vivid words 2. label the main idea. 3. place the important idea first or last in the sentence. 4. place the important idea in a simple sentence or in an independent clause 5. Make sure the important idea is the sentence subject.


What is the active voice?

In sentences with active-voice verbs, the subject is the doer of the action.


What is the passive voice?

In passive-voice sentences, the subject is acted upon.


When to use active voice?

Use active voice for directness, vigor, and clarity


Business writing should use active voice but in what 3 instances can passive voice be used?

1. To emphasize an action or the recipient of the action. 2. To de-emphasize negative news. 3. To conceal the doer of an action.