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Flashcards in Communications - Chapter 4 Deck (57):

What are the 4 basic principles of business writing?

Purposeful, persuasive, economical, audience oriented


What is purposeful business writing?

You will be writing to solve problems and convey information. You will have definite purpose to fulfill in each message


What is persuasive business writing?

You want your audience to believe and accept your message.


What is economical business writing?

You will try to present ideas clearly but concisely. Length is not rewarded.


What is audience oriented business writing?

You will concentrate on look at a problem from the perspective of the audience instead of seeing it from your own.


What are the 3 phases of 3-x-3 writing process

Prewriting, writing, and revising


What are 3 phases of prewriting?

1. Analyzing the audience and your purpose for writing. 2. Anticipating how your audience will react to your message. 3. Adapting your message to the audience


What are 3 phases of writing?

1. Researching information 2 Organizing information 3. Composing the letter


What are 3 phases of revising?

1. Revising the message for clarity, conciseness, tone, and readability 2. Proofreading carefully to ensure correct spelling, grammar, punctuation, and format. 3. Evaluating your message to decide whether it accomplishes your goal


What percentage of your time should you spend on each phase of the writing process?

1. Prewriting 25% (think and planning) 2. Writing 25% (organizing and writing) 3. Revising 50% (45% revising and 5% proofreading)


What are 2 questions to identify your business writing purpose?

1) why am I sending this message? 2) what do I hope to achieve?


What are the primary and secondary purposes of most business messages?

The primary purpose is to Inform and persuade. The secondary purpose is to promote good will.


Why is it important to profile the audience for a business message?

Profiling your audience helps you make decisions about shaping the message.


What are first 3 of 6 primary audience profiling questions?

1. Who is my primary reader or listener? 2.What are my personal and professional relationships with this person? 3. What position does this person hold in the organization?


What are last 3 of 6 primary audience profiling questions?

4. How much does the person know about the subject? 5. What do I know about this person's education, beliefs, culture, and attitudes? 6. Should I expect a neutral, positive, or negative response to my message?


What are 4 secondary audience profiling questions?

1. Who might see or hear this message in addition to the primary audience? 2. How do these people differ from the primary audience? 3. Do I need to include more background information? 4. How must I reshape my message to make it understandable and acceptable to others to whom it might be forwarded?


What is tone?

Tone is how you say something. It affects how a receiver feels upon reading or hearing a message.


What is the tone of "You must return the form by 5 pm"?

Aggressive or negative tone


What is the tone of "Would you please return the form by 5 pm"?

Friendlier, more positive tone


What are the first 4 of 8 adaptions to the audience?

1. Developing audience benefits 2. Cultivating the "you" view. 3. Being conversational but professional 4. Expressing yourself positively


What are the last 4 of 8 adaptions to the audience?

5. Being courteous 6. Choosing bias-free language 7. Using plain language and familiar words 8. Employing precise, vigorous words.


thi hành, thực hiện đầy đủ (giao kèo, khế ước...)



bảo thủ, thủ cựu



(1x1) In Pre-writing, how do you Analyze ? - Deciding on your purpose.

1. What do you want the receiver to do or believe? 2. What channel or form is best? 3. Should you deliver your message in writing, orally, electronically, or graphically?


(1x2) In Pre-writing, how do you Anticipate? - Profile the audience.

1. What does the receiver already know? 2. Will the receiver's response be neutral, positive, or negative? 3. Use the direct method for positive messages; indirect method for negative or persuasive messages


(1x3) In Pre-writing, how do you Adapt?

What techniques can you use to adapt your message to its audience and the audience's anticipated reaction? Include audience benefits and the "you" view, as well as positive, conversational, and courteous language.


(2x1) In Writing, how do you Research? - Gather data to provide facts.

1. Search company files, previous communication, and the internet. 2. What do you need to know to write this message? 3. How much does the audience already know?


(2x2) In Writing, how do you Organize DIRECT messages?

Organize direct messages with 1) big ideas first, 2) followed by an explanation and an 3) action request in the closing.


(2x2) In Writing, how do you Organize persuasive or negative messages?

Organize with an indirect and problem solving plan.


(2x2) In Writing, how do you Organize short and long messages?

Organize short messages with quick notes, and long messages with an outline of your plan and notes.


(2x3) In Writing, how do you Compose?

Prepare a first draft, usually writing quickly. Focus on short, clear sentences using the active voice. Link ideas to build paragraph coherence.


(3x1) In Revising, how do you Revise?

Edit your message to be sure it's clear, conversational, concise, and readable. Develop parallelism and consider using headings and numbered and bulleted lists for quick comprehension.


(3x1) In Revising, what should you delete?

Delete wordy fillers, long lead-ins, redundancies, compound prepositions, wordy noun phrases, and trite business phrases.


(3x2) In Revising, how do you Proofread?

Take the time to read over every message carefully. Look for errors in 1. spelling, 2. grammar, 3. punctuation, 4. names, 5. numbers and 6. format.


(3x3) In Revising, how do you Evaluate?

Decide whether this message will achieve your purpose. Have you thought enough about the audience to be sure this message is appropriate and appealing?


Channels: When to use a Blog?

When one person needs to present digital information easily so that it is available to others


Channels: When to use E-mail?

When you need feed back but not immediately. Lack of security makes it problematic for personal, emotional, or private messages.


Channels: When to use Face to face conversation?

When you need a rich, interactive medium. Useful for persuasive, bad-news, and personal messages.


Channels: When to use Face to face group meeting?

When group decisions and consensus are important. Inefficient for merely distributing information.


Channels: When to use instant message?

When you are online and need a quick response.


Channels: When to use a letter?

When a written record or formality is required especially with customers, the government, suppliers, or others outside of the organization.


Channels: When to use a memo?

When you want a written record to clearly explain policies, discuss procedures, or collect information within an organization.


Channels: When to use a phone call?

When you need to deliver or gather info quickly, when nonverbal cues are unimportant, and when you can't meet in person.


Channels: When to use a report or proposal?

When you are delivering considerable data internally or externally.


Channels: When to use a voice mail message?

When you wish to leave important or routine information that the receiver can respond to when convient


Channels: When to use a video or audio conference?

When group consensus and interaction are important, but members are geographically dispersed.


Channels: When to use a wiki?

When digital info must be made available to others. Useful for collaboration because participants can easily add, remove, and edit content.\


How do you select the best channel?

1. Importance of the message 2. Amount and speed of feedback and interactivity requried. 3. Necessity of a permanent record. 4. Cost of the channel 5. Degree of formality desired. 6. Confidentiality and sensitivity of the message.


How do you write in the "you" view?

Concentrate on the audience benefits. Use the word "you" instead of "I" or "We".


How do you rewrite this into the "you" view?
* We require all employees to respond to this survey about health benefits

Because YOUR our ideas count please complete the the survey about health benefits


How do you rewrite this into the "you" view?
* I need your account number before I can do anything.

Would you mind giving me your account number so that I can locate your records and HELP YOU solve this problem?


Unprofessional: Look, dude, this report is totally bogus, And the figures don't look kosher. Shoe me some real stats. Got sources?

Professional: Because the figures in this report seems inaccurate, please submit the source statistics.


Overly formal: All employees are herewith instructed to return the appropriately designated contracts to the undersigned

Conversational. Please return your contracts to me.


Negative: This plan definitely can't succeed if we don't obtain management approval.

Positive: This plan definitely can succeed if we obtain management approval.


Less courteous: Stewart, you must complete all performance reviews by Friday.

More Courteous: Stewart, will you please complete all performance reviews by Friday?


What are the biases?

Avoid Gender biased, racially biased, age biased, disability biased.


Imprecise, dull: a change in profits

More precise: a 25% percent hike in profits.